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A O Li Presents:—- 


These brilliant young Americans appear nightly in the cleanest and most whole- 
some humor in the world today. 

After four years of broadcasting, the records show them still outstandingly the 
world's greatest daily radio attraction. 

The 1931-32 radio season promises many wonderful surprises for you. 

Station KSL always appreciates a part of your listening time and invites 

you to tune in often. 

The Improvement Era for September, 1931 



preparing a series of pen pic- 
tures of the First Presidency and 
Twelve. These will not be biog- 
raphies but human interest stories 
of Church leaders whose lives are 
full of thrilling experiences. The 
subject of the first sketch will be 
President Heber J. Grant. 

— ««?ejB*o»- 

A NOTHER interesting parable 
1 x from the pen of Dr. James E. 
Talmage will appear in the Oc- 
tober number. 

'T'HE largest number of stories 
ever received by the Era in any 
of its prize contests resulted from 
our latest offer. Final decision has 
not yet been made, but the story 
awarded first place, written by one 
whose work has appeared in print, 
will be given a place in our next 
issue. The first prize story sub- 
mitted by one whose writings have 
not appeared in print, will be an- 
nounced later. 

n RASSHOPPERS for Thanks- 
V ^ giving is the title of an in- 
teresting account of this recent 
plague in mid-western and western 
states. In some parts of Utah 
farmers have been destroying them 
by the ton, and in other places a 
pest has been put to practical use. 

— «e<f£J<ifca»— 

A NEW and interesting depart- 
•^ ment will be introduced in the 
October Era — "The Right Thing 
At All Times." Adah H. Naylor, 
well known to readers through her 
"Foods for Health" column dur- 
ing the past year, is to have charge 
of the page each month, and she 
will point out in her clear, delight- 
ful way the advantages and joys 
of knowing what the "right thing" 
is on all occasions. Read her first 
article on good manners and you 
will find yourself watching eagerly 
for the next one. 


HTHE New Education in Austria, 
A by Mrs. Bertha S. Stevensen, 
is an instructive article on an edu- 
cational movement which is at- 
tracting international attention. 
We are fortunate to be able to 
present it to our readers. 

PThe improvement 


Melvin J. Ballard 

Business Manager 

O. B. Peterson, Ass't. Business Manager 

Clarissa A. Beesley 
Associate Business Manager 

George Q. Morris 
Rachel Grant Taylor 
Chairmen Era and Publicity 

Organ of the Priesthood Quorums, the Mutual Improvement 

Associations and the Department of Education 

Copyright, 1930, by the Young Men's Mutual Improvement Association 
Corporation of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints 


Title Author 

Editorials — 

The Story of Two Lamps i Dr. James E. Talmage 

The Old Order Changeth —Elsie T. Bcandley 

The Judgments of Today Hugh J. Cannon 

An Age of Miracles Hugh J. Cannon 

Pioneers President Anthony W. loins 

Greatness in Men Bryant S. Hinckley 

The Law of Chastity Joseph Fielding Smith 

Facing Life — (Part VIII) Dr. Adam S. Bennion 

Man Gains Dominion Over the Earth Dr. Thomas L. Martin 

Word of Wisdom Exhibit George Albert Smith, Jr. 

"Mormon Boy Crowned World's Greatest Athlete" Les Goates 

Covered Wagon Days _ R. J. C. 

'Twas a Long, Long Trail Patricia H. McMillen 

On the Trail of the Overland Stage Kenneth S. Bennion 

A Daughter of Martha (Serial Story, Chapter Two) 

Ivy Williams Stone 

Largo (A Story) , — E. W. Taylor 

Trailer of Evergreen (A Story) Lieut. Sidney DeGrey 

A Sermon on a Watermelon Ora Lewis 

Glancing Through (Summaries of Magazine Articles) -.Elsie T. Bfiandley 


The Tapestry of Life Elsie C. Carroll 

Dry Farms Vesta P. Crawford 

Impressions i_ Linda S. Fletcher 

On The Hills Guy E. Coleman 

Ashes for Beauty Beatrice K. Ekman 

A Sonnet to Nature Florence D. Cummings 

Sonnet Christie Lund 

Foods for Health ^Adah R. Naylor 

Priesthood Quorums 

The Challenge (M. I. A. Song) -—Ruth May Fox, J. Spencer Cornwall 

Mutual Messages , 

Era and Publicity Department 

Community Activity Committee 

M Men Department 

Keep a-Crammin' (A Poem) 

Adult Department , . 

Gleaner Girls Department 

Junior Girls Department '. 

Vanguards Scouts Departments 

Beehive Girls Department 

The Workmanship of Your Hands Glenn J. Beeley 






Entered at the Post Office, Salt Lake City, Utah, as second-class matter, 
Acceptance for mailing at special rate of postage provided for in section 1 103, 
Act of October, 1917, authorized July 2, 1918. 

Manuscripts submitted without the statement, "At usual rates," are con- 
sidered free contributions. Photographs, unless their return is especially 
requested, will be destroyed. 

Published monthly at Salt Lake City by the M. 1. A. General Boards; 
$2 per annum. Address: Room 406 Church Office Building. 


Hugh J. Cannon 
Managing Editor 

I A L 

Elsie Talmage Brandley 
Associate Editor 

Heber J. Grant, Editor 

The Story of Two Lamps 

A Parable and Its Application 

A MONG the material 
-*-*- things of the past — 
things that I treasure for 
sweet memory's sake and 
because of pleasant associ- 
ation in bygone days — is 
a lamp. It is of the Ar- 
gand type, commonly 
known in the day of its 
popularity as the "Stu- 
dent's Lamp," so named 
in acknowledgment of its 
particular and peculiar 
suitability for the reader's 
table. Lamps of this kind 

were among the best in the long-ago. A very few 
years divide the long-ago from the present as meas- 
ured in terms of improvement and progress. In 
the long-ago of which I speak, illuminating gas 
was known only in large cities or in pretentious 
towns with a history, and electric lights in dwellings 
was a rare novelty. Candles and oil lamps were 
the only common means of domestic illumination. 
The lamp of which I speak, the student lamp 
of my school and college days, was one of the best 
of its kind. I had bought it with hard-earned 
savings; it was counted among my most cherished 
possessions. That type of lamp was provided with 
a small- hollow wick, and had a straight cylindrical 
chimney, with a constriction near the base, where 
an enlargement adapted it to the burner. It was 
constructed in accordance with the best knowledge of 
the day. Its tubular wick, less than a fingerbreadth 
in diameter, with efficient air inlet at the bottom 

of the Council of the Twelve Apostles 

Editors' Note: Reprinted from The Improvement Era, 
Vol. 17, No. 3; January, 1914. As so few, com- 
paratively, of our present readers have access to old vol- 
umes of the Era, we feel justified in reprinting this ex- 
cellent parable from the pen of Dr. Talmage. Like the 
Gospel itself, it will appeal to trained and untrained 

through the late and early 
hours, my lamp came to 
be more than a mere phys- 
ical illuminator- — it was a 
sympathetic companion, 
an inspiration to mental 
and spiritual enlighten- 
ment. You who have been 
in stress and strife, you 
who have had to wrestle 
with difficulty and contend 
with seeming fate, you 
who have been blessed 
through all such taxing 
strain with a never-failing 
friend, an ever-present and ever-ready companion — 
you may know somewhat of the affection I felt and 
feel for my faithful lamp. 

Compared with waxen candle and ordinary oil 
burning lamps it was of high efficiency. What mat- 
ters it today that such a lamp is counted dim? It 
was the best I knew; it was excellent in its time. 
Do you ask how much light it gave? I can answer 
your query with precision, for as early as that time, 
in the long-ago, I was a student of science; and I had 
tested my lamp according to the laws of photometry 
in the improvised laboratory! had contrived. The 
light was of about twelve candle power, in terms 
of the generally recognized and standardized rating. 
It was brilliant in that period — in the long-ago, 

One summer evening I sat musing studiously and 
withal restfully in the open air outside the door of 
the room in which I lodged and studied. A stranger 

insured fairly complete combustion with a minimum approached. I noticed that he carried a satchel. He 
loss of energy through useless generation of heat. was affable and entertaining. I brought another 
The oil reservoir was supported on an upright chair from within, and we chatted together till the 

standard, removed by several inches from the place 
of combustion; and. in consequence, the holder cast 
no shadow upon printed page or writing tablet, pro- 
vided, of course, the lamp was properly placed. 

I took good care of my lamp. I had in it a pride 
such as the horseman feels in his favorite mount. 
He likes personally to groom and feed his steed, and 
so I allowed none but myself to trim the wick, 
burnish the chimney, and fill the reservoir of my 
lamp. When brightly burning, with its deep green 
opaque shade, brilliantly deflecting and reflecting be- 
neath, it diffused a wholly satisfactory illumination 
upon my page; and, as I kept vigil night after night, 

twilight had .deepened into dusk, the dusk into 

Then he said: "You are a student, and doubtless 
have much work to do o'nights. What kind of lamp 
do you use?" And without waiting for a reply he 
continued: "I have a superior lamp I should like to 
show you, a lamp designed and constructed according 
to the latest achievements of applied science, far 
surpassing anything heretofore produced as a means 
of artificial lighting." 

I replied with confidence, and I confess not with- 
out some exultation: "My friend, I have a lamp, 
one that has been tested and proved. It has been 

The Improvement Era for September, 1931 


to me a companion through many a long night. It 
is an Argand lamp, and one of the best. I have 
trimmed and cleaned it today; it is ready for the light- 
ing. Step inside; I will show you my lamp, then you 
may tell me whether yours can possibly be better." 

We entered my study room, and with a feeling 
which I assume is akin to that of the athlete about 
to enter a contest with one whom he regards as a 
pitiably inferior opponent, I put the match to my 
well-trimmed Argand. 

My visitor was voluble in his praise. It was the 
best lamp of its kind he said. He averred that he 
had never seen a lamp in better trim. He turned 
the wick up and down and pronounced the adjust- 
ment perfect. He declared that never before had he 
realized how satisfactory a student lamp could be. 

I liked the man; he seemed to me wise, and he 
assuredly was ingratiating. Love me, love my lamp, 
I thought, mentally paraphrasing a common expres- 
sion of the period. 

"Now," said he, "with your permission I'll light 
my lamp." He took from his satchel a lamp then 
known as the "Rochester." It had a chimney which, 
compared with mine, was as a factory smoke-stack 
alongside a house flue. Its hollow wick was wide 
enough to admit ;my four fingers. Its light made 
bright the remotest corner of my room. In its 
brilliant blaze my own little Argand wick burned 
a weak, pale yellow. Until that moment of con- 
vincing demonstration I had never known the dim 
obscurity in which I had lived and labored, studied 
'and struggled. 

"I'll buy your lamp," said I; "you need neither 
explain nor argue further." I took my new acquisi- 
tion to the laboratory that same night, and deter- 
mined its capacity. It burned at over forty-eight 
candle power — fully four times the intensity of my 
student lamp. 

Two days after purchasing, I met the lamp- 
peddler on the street, about noontime. To my 
inquiry he replied that business was good; the de- 
mand for his lamps was greater than the factory 
supply. "But," said I, "you are not working to- 
day?" His rejoinder was a lesson. "Do you think 
that I would (be so foolish as to go around trying 
to sell lamps in the daytime? Would you have 
bought one if I had lighted it for you when the sun 
was shining? I chose the time to show the superi- 
ority of my lamp over yours; and you were eager 
to own the better one I ofFered, were you not?" 

Such is the story. Now consider the application 
of a part, a very small part, thereof. 

"Let your light so shine before men, that they 
may see your good works, and glorify your Father, 
which is in heaven." 

The man who would sell me a lamp did not 
disparage mine. He placed his greater light along- 
side my feebler flame, and I hasted to obtain the 

The missionary servants of the Church of Jesus 
Christ today are sent forth, not to assail or ridicule 
the beliefs of men, but to set before the world a 
superior light, by which the smoky dimness of the 
flickering flames of man-made creeds shall be appar- 
ent. The work of the Church is constructive, not 

As to the further meaning of the parable, let 
him that hath eyes and a heart see and understand. 

The Old Order 



ONE of the overworked statements of present day 
conversation is to the effect that times have 
changed. People of advanced years declare the fact 
solemnly and with ominous head-shakings; those of 
middle age are more matter-of-fact about it, taking 
it as a not-too-unpleasant surprise; and youth is tri- 
umphant, for youth always thinks times should 
change, and glory in having a share of the changing. 

Times have changed! That fact is evident to all 
who know anything at all about what times used to 
be. One needs only look about to be convinced. 
Automobiles instead of horse-drawn "buggies", tra- 
verse the thoroughfares; airplanes like birds wing 
the air; women vote, and even participate in govern- 
ment; long hair is no longer a crowning beauty, but 
a nuisance which will not go into the average hat, 
and, sometimes, a confession of a lack of courage; 
sideburns are scarce; and saloons have given place to 
beauty-parlors. These are a few of the many external 
changes, to which countless others might be added. 
On every hand are to be seen or heard changes which 
the times have brought and are bringing hourly. 

Quite as important are other changes, not always 
visible or audible, which are making themselves felt 
in the life of today. Young people are experiencing 
these more definitely, perhaps, than are their parents 
and grandparents, and viewing them with less fore- 
boding, and no fear that civilization is threatened 
because of them. Quietly, gradually have these other 
changes come, without the throb of motor or roar 
of whirling propeller, without the exhilaration of 
speeding through space or walking into an erstwhile 
forbidden ballot-booth. Slowly, almost unrecog- 
nized have they come, creeping into minds and hearts, 
and giving rise to new questions, new problems, new 

First, and perhaps a basic explanation of many 
of the others, is the change in the educational situa- 
tion of today. Colleges are filled, whereas high- 
schools used to be half-empty. The time was, not 
long ago, when schools were institutions in which 
questions were answered; now they are places where 
questions are asked and the student, and life, left to 
give answer. Experiment analysis, debate and open 
forum, trial and mistake and retrial all have a part 
iiy-the schooling of today, in place of the catechismal 
order of an earlier time; and following in the wake 
of these methods is an inevitable train of unsolved 
problems, unanswered queries. 

Into recreation have changes come, also. The 
idea of extracting joy from a quiet afternoon on a 
hill with a book, or in peaceful contemplation of 
the clouds moving slowly across a blue sky; or in a 
garden with trowel and watering can has become 
dim by comparison with the newer notion of speed 
and snap, pep, thrill, jazz which has seized upon 
many and been thrust upon others. Going some- 
where, doing something, getting into a merry, noisy, 



The Improvement Era for September, 1931 

lively crowd — this seems to be the slogan which 
offers fairer promise of fun than all the hills and 
clouds and gardens ever made. 

The problems of today are not new problems, 
but they require a new method of solving; a method 
to counteract the answer to be found in dance-hall, 
joy-ride and skepticism. There is nothing hope- 
less about the change in the old order, for change is 
significant, often, of growth, progress, uplift. 

The one great need is the realization of a common 
purpose, a single aim toward which all are working. 
With sympathy, love and tolerance, guided by prayer, 
the questions of today will find answer which will 
give promise for the morrow and eternity. In the 
Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints are 
solutions to the problems which beset its members, 
young or old. In friendship and sincere spirit of 
cooperation and helpfulness the magazines of the 
Church hope to do their part in making both ques- 
tions and answers clear. — E. T. B. 

The Judgments of Today 

A GENTLEMAN once called on President Lor- 

-*-*- enzo Snow and something like the following 
conversation ensued: 

"President Snow, I am very much interested in 
the doctrines of your Church and particularly in the 
Book of Mormon. I have read it a number of times 
and believe it contains the truth. However, there 
is one thing which to me is inexplicable. Most of 
my studies have been along the line of transmission 
of sound, and I am something of an expert in that 
field. Now according to the Book of Mormon, 
Christ visited the Nephites and spoke to them in a 
voice which was neither harsh nor loud, but all 
of the multitude heard it. As one who knows 
something of sound waves, such a thing seems un- 
natural and impossible. A voice sufficiently loud 
to carry the waves to all the listeners would seriously 
injure the eardrums of those near by." 

The venerable president put this question to his 
visitor: "In your scientific studies do you run across 
problems which you cannot answer?" 

"Oh, yes, certainly," the man replied, "many of 

"And there are questions pertaining to the Gospel 
which cannot be answered," President Snow candidly 
admitted. "Perhaps this is one of them. But I knew 
Joseph Smith intimately; I, too, have made a careful 
study of the Book of Mormon; and I have received a 
positive testimony from the Lord that the young 
prophet translated this book from the plates, just as 
he said he did, through power received from on high. 
Any question, therefore, which arises in my mind and 
which cannot be immediately answered is put aside, 
as your scientific problems are, until by thought and 
study and further revelation an explanation is 


Scarcely a score of years after 

The Mvsterv ^ s conversat i° n ' a Church mem- 
•* ". • ber in Salt Lake City was asked 

Solved to speak on the following Sun- 

day in the Tabernacle. He wrote 
to his son in Los Angeles apprising him of the fact 

and suggested that he listen in. A number of friends 
had gathered in the son's home, for at the time radios 
were not so common as they are today, and as the 
voice of the speaker came clear and distinct into 
the room about eight hundred miles away, the son 
said, "That's my father speaking. I recognize his 

And yet the voice was neither harsh nor loud; 
neither were any eardrums injured. 

The problem which was so mystifying to a man 
of science a few years ago, a problem for which no 
human experience could find an explanation, is today 
as simple as the alphabet. 

Very frequently young people, and occasionally 
those of more mature years, are disturbed in their 
faith because there is an apparent conflict with the 
ideas of scientists which, according to human wis- 
dom, are well demonstrated truths. 

The attitude of President Snow was perfectly 
consistent. He knew that the Almighty had spoken 
and was willing to wait for detailed explanations 
of the things difficult to understand. Some narrow- 
minded scientists sneer at such a course. In this 
connection the words of Dr. Graham, of the Uni- 
versity of Chicago, are interesting. In an inspiring 
lecture delivered at the B. Y. U. Summer School, 
he said: "A contempt for religion is a contempt 
for humanity." 

The Almighty has given many 
Truth In- revelations both in ancient and 

modern times; but he expects his 
destructible children to walk by faith and 

therefore gives them "line upon 
line; here a little and there a little." Consider 
the words of Peter: "We have also a more sure word 
of prophecy; whereunto ye do well that ye take 
heed, as unto a light that shineth in a dark place, 
until the day dawn, and the day star arise in your 

In the words of the hymn, "God is his own in- 
terpreter, and he will make it plain." 

An A&e of Miracles 

the Radio Corporation of America, predicts 
marvelous things for electricity within the next de- 
cade or two. He has the following in Capper's 
Magazine for July: 

"Let me picture a directors' meeting of the future: 
A great corporation whose directorate is scattered 
across the continent calls a meeting of the board by 
wire. The hour is named, switches go on and in 
an hour a quorum is obtained. To each man as he 
sits in the quiet of his own office come in turn the 
voices of his fellow directors. The discussion ends, a 
vote is taken and a copy of the proceedings is flashed 
to every member for signature. The facsimiles with 
the signatures are flashed back and the chairman 
adjourns the meeting. 

He is speaking of the future, but the astounding 
achievements of the recent past make the most fan- 
tastic ideas appear plausible. When the human 
voice with all its inflections can be heard around 
the world, surely nothing is impossible once the 
law by which it is governed is learned. — H. J. C. 

£fhe ^mprovemeirt 

Vol. 34-42 No. 1 1 





A PIONEER is one who goes 
before, blazes trails, re- 
moves obstacles and pre- 
pares the way, that those who fol- 
low after may travel over better 
and safer roads. 

Roads made by men thread the 
world. We travel over them now 
on bands of steel, in luxurious 
motor cars or through the air. 
Only yesterday these roads were 
mere trails, blazed by fearless, in- 
trepid men through unknown for- 
ests, across trackless des- 
erts, or over snow-clad 
mountains. The romance 
and tragedy of these old 
trails, now so well 
known to us, will never 
be written or told. It 
cannot be, because the 
men and women who 
made unrecorded history 
along these devious ways, 
have long since gone to 
tread the paths of anoth- 
er and better world, 
leaving little of written 
history behind them. 

The lure of gold, the 
lust of conquest, the un- 

conquerable desire of man to pene- 
trate unknown fields for new dis- 
covery, the devotion of a Jesuit 
priest, or friar of the order of San 
Francisco to carry the cross to the 
unconverted heathen, regardless of 
the sacrifice or danger involved, 
freedom from religious and po- 
litical thraldom, are among the 
influences which have moved men 
to depart from the beaten paths 
and enter new and untried fields, 
whether it be in science, sociology, 

Their First Home 

Anthony W. Ivins and Mascot, (right) 
on the Torreon, Mexico 

or the discovery and colonization 
of new and unknown parts of the 
earth's surface. It is the spirit of 
the pioneer which prompts finite 
man to reach out in his endeavor 
to penetrate the infinite. 

(^)N these old trails men have 
^ perished from thirst in sum- 
mer, and from cold and lack of 
food in winter; have been mas- 
sacred by savages, have 
killed each other for pos- 
session of the precious 
fluid contained in the 
water holes scattered 
along the way, and have 
murdered for the gold 
taken from the hills 
through which the trails 

Young men and maid- 
ens have plighted their 
faith as they traveled 
over them, mothers have 
given birth to children, 
and holy men have sacri- 
ficed their lives for re- 
ligion's sake. No one can 


The Improvement Era for September, 1931 

tell the story, as time and fate have 
recorded it. 

V/fY parents, and I was with 
*- -*- them, consumed 128 days in 
the journey from New Jersey, my 
place of birth, to the Salt Lake 
valley. The distance can now be 
covered with ease in less 
than one day. Our pi- 
oneering began upon our 
arrival, and continued 
during the entire life of 
my parents and the great- 
er part of my own life. 

Our family were just 
comfortably located at 
Salt Lake City when at 
the October conference, 
1861, my father with 
others, was asked to go . 

into Southern Utah to 
settle the country now 
known as Utah's Dixie. 
My father immediately 
disposed of our home, lo- 
cated where the Oregon 
Short Line depot now 
stands, bought two yoke a. W. 

of oxen, a heavy prairie 
schooner, a light one horse wagon, 
and with this outfit we started for 

HTHE journey was slow and tire- 
•*■ some, but so new and interest- 
ing that I greatly enjoyed it, and 
the fates decreed that notwith- 
standing the fact that I was only 
in my ninth year, my entire life 
was to be influenced by the fol- 
lowing simple and unexpected oc- 

We were camped at Chicken 
Creek lake. A few wagons passed 
us and camped a little farther 
down the road. The following 
morning a span of mules 
belonging to the party 
ahead were grazing with 
our animals. I walked 
down the road to the 
place where our neigh- 
bors were camped and 
asked a man who was 
preparing a harness, if 
he had lost any mules? 
He smiled and said, 

When Pres, loins selected this 
spot for his home in Mexico, 
it was a stony, barren place. 
Every blade of grass, every 
shrub and tree seen in the pic- 
ture was planted by him. The 
house was built under his per- 
sonal direction. 

"No." As I stood by the wagon 
tongue, conversing with the man, 
a little girl walked up on the op- 
posite side of the tongue and from 
under a blue sun-bonnet looked 
at me, and I looked at her. I was 
thrilled with her beautiful brown 
eyes and could not forget them. 

When we 
reached ithe 
St. George 
there were 
but two 
there, Wil- 
liam Faw- 
cett and 

loins and his Bride 

Thompson had ar- 
rived before us. We 
pitched our tents, 
and the following 
day a number of 
other teams arrived, among them 
the people who had been camped 
near us at Chicken Creek. I again 
saw the little brown-eyed girl. 
She was the daughter of Erastus 
Snow, the father of Utah's Dixie. 
I continued to see her until we 
had grown to man and woman- 
hood when she became my wife. 
She is with me still, the same sweet 
girl that she was at Chicken Creek. 
She has shared with me the dan- 

gers, trials and privations of pio- 
neer life. No other has, or can 
ever take her place. 

A Pioneer Honeymoon 

A T the time of our marriage we 
**■ had no home and no money 
with which to buy one. We need- 
ed furniture to begin housekeep- 
ing, and Salt Lake City was the 
nearest place where these necessi- 
ties could be obtained. We raised 
peaches in Dixie, and the gold 
miners of Idaho and Montana 
were hungry for fruit; they want- 
ed our peaches, and we wanted 
their gold. 

I hitched up my team of horses, 
filled the wagon box with dried 
peaches, spread hay over 
them, then a mattress 
upon which we made our 
bed and started for Salt 
Lake. We found a ready 
market for the dried 
peaches, bought the nec- 
essary household furnish- 
ings and returned home. 

In storm or fine 
weather we camped along 
the way, the same road 
we had traveled as chil- 
dren, and enjoyed the 
trip. The following in- 
cident illustrates the idea which 
many people entertained regarding 
the "Mormon" pioneers at the 

HPHE day we reached Cedar City, 
*■ on our return, a heavy snow 
had fallen and the weather was 
bitterly cold. We drove to the 
hotel conducted by Bishop Henry 
Lunt and secured accommodations 
for the night. The bishop was 
also postmaster and kept 
the stage station. The 
coach was late because of 
the storm, and we waited 
dinner for its arrival. 
When it rolled in, a sin- 
gle passenger alighted, 
and walked into the sit- 
ting room. He was a 
small man, wore a derby 
hat, a doeskin jacket 
which fit tightly, doeskin 
trousers and heavy Eng- 
lish shoes. In his hand 
he carried an old fash- 
ioned carpet bag which 
he set down on the floor, 
and drew up a chair in 
front of the fire. Mrs. 

The Improvement Era for September, 1931 


Lunt came in and said: 

"We have been waiting supper 
for you, would you like to wash 
before you eat?" 

"No," he replied, "It's a warm 
I want, not a wash." 

After he had warmed himself 
he came into the dining room and 
told us his name was Timothy 
Quirk, that he was just from col- 
lege at Belfast, and on his way 
to Silver Reef to see his brother 
Mike. He had experienced many 
adventures since leaving home. He 

"When I reached Salt Lake City 
I had not a cint in me pocket, 
and I just went into a place where 
it said Deseret Telegraph over the 
door, and wrote on a piece of 
paper, 'Mike, I'm here and have 
no money,' and begorra it wasn't 
two hours till the money was 
there from Silver Reef, and how 
the divil they did it I can't tell. 
And during those two hours I 
walked the streets of Salt Lake 
about in the hope that I might 
see a 'Mormon.' They told me 
they lived there, but divil a one 
could I see." 

He then whispered to me: "I 
found out afterwards that they 
had them all shut up in the pal- 

"When your brother Mike 
wrote you did he tell you any- 
thing about 'Mormon' bishops?" 
I asked. 

"Sure he did," he replied, "and 
he didn't tell me anything good 
about them either." 

"Well," I said, "the gentleman 
to whom you are talking, the pro- 
prietor of the hotel is a 'Mormon' 
bishop. This young lady, the 
telegraph operator, is his daughter, 
she is a 'Mormon;' this lady is my 
wife, she is a 'Mormon,' and I am 
a 'Mormon'." He stared at me 
for a moment, then slapping his 
hands on his knees laughed as 
though his sides would split. 

"Do you think you can come that 
over me now?" he said. "Do you 
think I'm as aisy as that? Do 
you think I'd schlape in the house 
of a 'Mormon' bishop? I'd rather 
go out and schlape in the snow 

"How did you get along with 
the stage driver?" I asked. 

"Fine," he replied. "He's a fine 
fellow, is the stage driver." 

"He is a 'Mormon' too," I said. 

He shook his head, and said, 
"Divil a bit of it. I wouldn't 
ride a step wid a 'Mormon' stage 
driver, I'd rather walk iviry step 
of the way to Silver Reef first." 

He left on the stage the follow- 
ing morning, as unconverted as he 
came, still looking for a "Mor- 

A FEW weeks later I met him 
•^ at Silver Reef and said, "Well, 
Tim, have you seen any 'Mor- 
mons' yet?" 

"Oh, go way," he replied, as 
he gave me a push, "the woods are 
full of them, and th're divilish 
fine people. Why they have pigs, 
and coos, and chickens just as we 
have at home." 

Since the time referred to the 
girl with brown eyes and I have 
driven over the old trail in our 
own Packard car (paid for) and 
paid our respects to the old camp- 
ing places, thankful that we were 
not obliged to sleep in a covered 

When the pioneers entered the 
territory now known as Utah's 
Dixie, it was a barren, inhospit- 
able part of the great west, the 
hunting ground of the Ute, the 
Pahute and Navajo, and when 
these people saw the white man 
come, with our covered wagons 
and plows, our flocks and herds 
to eat their grass, and our civiliza- 
tion to frighten away the game 
which abounded, they naturally 
resented our encroachment. Eter- 
nal vigilance was the price of safe- 
ty and even then we were never 

"\/f ANY tragedies came into our 
^ -*■ lives because of the determi- 
nation of these people to drive 
the white invader from their coun- 
try. Among these was the death 
of J. M. Whitmore, father ol 
George Whitmore, late of Nephi, 
and Robert Mclntire, brother of 
the late Samuel and William Mc- 
lntire of Salt Lake City, who were 
killed at Pipe Springs, where they 
were engaged in ranching; the kill- 
ing of the two Berry brothers, 
and the wife of one, who was 
about to become a mother, at 
Short Creek; the death of Frank- 
lin B. Woolley, killed on the Mo- 
jave river, as he was returning 
from California with supplies for 
the people of St. George; the tragic 
death of the two Howland broth- 
ers and Dunn, three members of 
Major Powell's party who first 
passed through the Grand Canyon 
of the Colorado. All of these peo- 
ple, and others, were killed by 

There were other dangers be- 
sides Indians — for instance, the 
death of James Davidson, his wife 
and son, who perished from thirst 
on a road with which they were 
not familiar, on the desert be- 
tween St. George and the Muddy 
valley. This family was related 
to the late L. H. Farnsworth. 

Food and clothing were indis- 
pensable, and these could be ob- 
tained from cultivation of the soil 
and from our flocks and herds. 
They gave us food with which to 
sustain our bodies, clothing with 
which to cover them. Our flocks 
and herds, therefore, became our 
most cherished possession, and like 
Israel of old we became a pastoral 
people. Little attention could be 
given to the professions and other 
occupations by which men now 
accumulate wealth. 

AMONG the first acts of a pio- 
neer colony was the establish- 
ment of a place of worship, and 
a public school. 

Our principal medium of credit 
and exchange was produce. Money 
was rarely seen, as the following 
incident will show: 

We decided to establish a cotton 
factory, for the purpose of provid- 
ing the cloth, so indispensable for 
clothing. A train of teams was 
assembled to bring the machinery 
from Salt Lake. I drove a team 
of horses, while Sam Allen drove 


The Improvement Era for September, 1931 

just behind me with a team of 
mules. The second day out Sam 
came up to my wagon and said: 

"Tone, can I borrow your whip 
for a few moments? Dad's sent 
me out with these mules, and no 
whip, I want to wake them up." 

"I handed him a new black- 
snake whip which I had just pur- 
chased, and he woke the mules up 
in great shape. He came up to the 
side of my wagon and said: 

"Tone, what'll you take for 
this whip?" 

I told him I had just paid three 
dollars for it, and if he needed it, 
he could have it for that price. He 
put his hand in his pocket and 
pulled out a handful of silver, 
looked at it a moment, and reach- 
ing out his hand said: 

"Here, take three dollars out 

of this. D if I know how 

much money is, but I guess I could 
tell by looking at it quite a while. 
I've got a hull lot of it here that 
Dad gave me for expenses. I have 
to buy a hat and pair of shoes 
when we come to a store, and the 
rest's for expenses." 

TOOK three dollars from his 
* hand and he put the balance 
back in his pocket. A few days 
later we camped in the outskirts 
of Beaver, and after the teams were 
cared for Sam went up to the store 
to buy a pair of shoes. He re- 
turned looking very much trou- 

"What's the matter, Sam?" I 
said. "Didn't they have any 

"Yes," he replied, "they had 
shoes, and they was just what I 
wanted. I asked the man up there 
how much they was, and he said 
three dollars. I asked him how 
much they was in greenbacks, and 
he said three dollars. I asked him 
how much they was in silver. He 
said three dollars. I guess the — 
fool thought I didn't know that 
silver was worth more than green- 

I explained that there was no 
difference in the value of silver and 
greenbacks. He returned to the 
store and came back happy with 
his new shoes. 

Our only means of transporta- 
tion was by team and wagon, or 
on horseback. The covered wagon 
gave protection from the storms 
while we moved from place to 
place, and when at home the 

wagon box was removed to serve 
as bed room. 

TOURING the summer months, 
■*** trips were made to Salt Lake, 
our nearest point where supplies 
could be acquired. During the 
winter months the road to Cali- 
fornia could be traveled in safety, 
and we went there for merchan- 
dise. The ethics of the road requir- 
ed the team going down hill to give 
the road to the one coming up, 
or if one team was traveling empty 
the driver was expected to give 
the road to the loaded team. 

These [rules were not always 
adhered to and as a consequence 
we kept a good team and fighting 
driver in the lead. In local travel 
to Pioche and other mining camps, 
Sanpete was the boss of the road. 
They produced grain in Sanpete, 
the boys drove fat horses and good 
wagons, while Dixie teams were 
not so well fed. What Dixie 
lacked in other respects it made 
up in fighting spirit. J. H. was 
our fighting leader. 

AS a few teams were going down 
x ^ Circle Valley Canyon on one 
occasion, Jim, some distance ahead, 
met a boy coming up the road. 

"Are you going to get out and 
give me the road," demanded Jim. 

"No," replied the boy. "You 
are coming down, you should get 
out and give me the road." 

"If you don't get out and give 
me the road, I'll get down and take 
it out of your hide," said Jim. 

As the rest of us came down the 
canyon a few minutes after, we 
met the boy coming up. A little 

farther on we found Jim sitting by 
the creek washing a bad looking 

"What's the matter, Jim?" one 
of the boys asked. 

"Oh, nothin' much," replied 
Jim. "I just made a little mistake 
in judgment. That's all." 

After the Civil War, the ques- 
tion of slavery having been dis- 
posed of, the congress turned its 
attention to the abolition of polyg- 
amy. Under the administration 
of President U. S. Grant bills were 
introduced in congress providing 
for the suppression of plural mar- 
riage, which created no little con- 
cern among the members of the 
dominant Church. 

I was working in the hay-field 
at the time, and on the opposite 
side of the windrow worked a man 
whose name was Hans Jacobson. 
Hans stopped, and leaning on his 
hayfork, said: 

"Tony, is General Grant presi- 
dent of the whole world?" 

"No," I replied, "he is president 
of but a small portion of it." 

He continued: "I've been won- 
dering 'if there aint some place 
where we could go, where he 
wouldn't be president; this here 
polygamy question looks mighty 
serious to me." 

T EXPLAINED to him that 
Mexico was but a short dis- 
tance to the south of us, and we 
might go there. 

"I expect that if we went to 
that country the Mexicos would 
be after us just the same," he re- 
marked. I then proceeded to tell 
him something of the great na- 
tions of the Old World, and ex- 
plained what a numerous people 
occupied Europe, over whom Pres- 
ident Grant exercised no jurisdic- 

We worked on a few minutes 
when Hans again stopped and 
leaned on his hay-fork. He said: 
"Tony, it looks to me like the 
best thing we can do will be to go 
to Europe, and get away from 
General Grant, but I expect it 

would take us a d long time 

to get there with our scrub teams, 
wouldn't it?" 

: 'Yes, Hans," I replied, it would 
take a long time." I concluded 
further explanation would be 

[Continued on page 672] 

Greatness in Men 

IF you were called upon to se- 
lect a dozen great men from all 
the distinguished people of the 
past, whom would you place on 
the highest pedestals in your hall 
of fame? What would be your 
guide in selecting these men? There 
would be no hesitancy about some 
— you would debate long about 
others. Why? Because you can- 
not measure the intangible quali- 
ties of character by material stan- 
dards. Neither the metric system 
nor the most delicate scale of the 
apothecary nor the most painstak- 
ing and accurate laboratory test 
can reveal moral values. Still we 
believe that these qualities are 
measurable. Not that any hard and 
fast rule can be laid down by 
which you can say this man is 
great and this one is not, but there 
are definite types of manhood 
which no one can seriously muti- 
late and be classed among those 
of enduring greatness. 

This brings us squarely to the 

What is human greatness? 

What are its types? 

What is the explanation? 

These are common questions, 
easy to ask but difficult to answer. 

President of Liberty Stake 

P LBERT HUBBARD in one of 
- Lj his "Little Journeys" asks this 
question: "Who is the great 
man?" and proceeds to say: "Lis- 
ten and I will tell you. * * * He 
is great who inspires others to 
think for themselves, he is great 
who pulls you out of your mental 
ruts, lifts you out of the mire of 
the commonplace. * * * He is great 
to whom writers, poets, painters, 
philosophers, preachers and scien- 
tists go, each to fill his own little 
tin cup, dipper, calabash, vase, 
stein, pitcher, amphora, bucket, 
tub, barrel or cask." 

In "Twelfth Night" Shake- 
speare says: "Some men are born 
great, some achieve greatness, and 
some have greatness thrust upon 

Here are two definitions: Hub- 
bard limits his definition to men 
of great personal influence. Shake- 
speare's definition has become com- 
monplace. The third statement, 
"some have greatness thrust upon 
them," is true but it does not make 

those upon whom it is thrust great. 
There are many men of fortunate 
fame who are not really great men. 

"V/T AY we say, however, that one 
of the deciding factors, an in- 
dispensable factor, in making this 
selection would be that attribute 
of the soul which we commonly 
designate as righteousness. In our 
conception a man cannot be truly 
great who is not good. 

"There are some men and wo- 
men in whose company we are 
always at our best, while with 
them we cannot think mean 
thoughts or speak ungenerous 
words. Their presence elevates 
and inspires us. All our best na- 
ture is drawn out by the inter- 
course and we find music in our 
souls that never was there before." 
(Dr. Drummond) 

Contact with great souls is the 
contagion the world most needs. 
An inwardly triumphant and vic- 
torious personality is the supreme 
achievement. Back of all enduring 
greatness is that human quality 
symbolized by the word service. 

HTHERE is no pursuit more fas- 

cinating than the st^dy of 

greatness in men and certainly none 


The Improvement Era for September, 1931 

more fundamentally important. 
The discovery and development of 
great men is incomparably greater 
than the • discovery and develop- 
ment of gold mines or anything 
else in the realm of the material 
unless it in turn contributes to this 
very end. Growth in character 
is the objective of all social and 
individual effort. Men who ideal- 
ize democracy are, after all, hero 
worshipers, and they ought to. be — 
not that they fawn and pay servile 
homage to men, but rather because 
they feel a generous pride that hu- 
man faculties and forces can be 
raised to such noble heights, pride 
in the demonstration that man has 
in him sublime possibilities, that 
his spirit touched with the power 
of genius can rise to such great 

Thomas Carlyle has written 
most inspiringly about this great 
theme. He held a sanctified ideal 
of man, maintaining that he is 
a visible revelation of God. He 
said: "There is but one Temple in 
the Universe and that is the body 
of man," and this is typical of 
much that he said. Any deface- 
ment of his ideal called forth, as 
nothing else could, the torrents of 
his wrath and scorn. With match- 
less eloquence he preached sincerity 
and genuineness. He said again 
and again, "Sincerity, a deep, great 
sincerity is the first characteristic of 
all men in any way heroic." 

'T'HE fierceness with which he as- 
sails all forms of sham and 
pretense stirs and delights one. In 
all this Carlyle is great, incompar- 
ably great, but, strange to say, 
when he selects the men who seem 
to challenge his admiration most 
the qualities about which he dis- 
courses so eloquently are not al- 
together predominant in them. He 
seems to applaud unduly the 
"rough and dictatorial energy so 
much adored by the mob." He 
loves most of all the dictators, the 
hard fighters, the rough and phys- 
ically courageous. He displays less 
admiration for the men distin- 
guished for the quieter but, after 
all, more far-reaching forces. 

If a man of Carlyle's genius 
and capacity seems to err in the 
selection of men who might be en- 
titled to a place among those of 
recognized greatness, how about 
the rest of us? Would it not be 
advantageous to establish, if pos- 

sible, some standards by which to 
guage the capacity of men so that 
one might discriminate between 
those who may be only impressive 
and extraordinary and those who 
are essentially great? 

COMETIMES the commendable 
*■* and the contemptible, the noble 
and the ignoble, are so mixed that 
the bad neutralizes the good in 
a way to render a man altogether 
admirable in some respects and to- 
tally unworthy in other respects. 
A man may be impressively large 
of scale, both morally and im- 
morally, and his place among the 
notables of the world will depend 
entirely upon the accent given to 
the moral side. Mankind enjoys 
a diversity of gifts and endow- 
ments. One may be exceptionally 
endowed but if there is not great- 
ness in the endowment there is no 
magic by which it can make its 
possessor great. 

J. N. Larned in his stimulating 
book, "Study of Greatness in 
Men" has thoughtfully considered 
this question and formulated some 
principles of judgment by which 
to make comparisons between the 
heroes of mankind. He lays down 
the following standards by which 
to measure the worth of men: 

( 1 ) The ethical or moral 

(2) The rational or purely in- 

(3) The dynamic or energetic 
and proceeds to say: 

"The first of these groups takes 

in all that gives a moral quality 
to character and conduct; the sec- 
ond includes reason and imagina- 
tion with whatever acts in the 
mind toward the operation of 
both; in the third we place such 
forces of feeling and volition as 
energize human action by ardors 
and enthusiasms, by possessions 
and desires, by resolutions and 
will." The person who is con- 
spicuously deficient in any of these 
three essentials cannot qualify in 
the class of the really great. 

A LITTLE reflection will show 
* clearly that the factors which 
rate highest are the moral and in- 
tellectual, the factors of energy are 
only important as servants of the 
others. One may be great in in- 
tellect, great in dynamic energy and 
still fall far short of being really 
great. One must be actuated by 
large and unselfish motives, his 
powers must be devoted to great 
objectives. The ends which he 
seeks must have the approval of the 
public conscience and contribute to 
the common good. 

The character of the man and 
the forces which motivate his ac- 
tions must be taken into considera- 
tion in determining the class to 
which he belongs. These three 
conditions are needful in the mak- 
ing of great men:* 

1. Great Endowments 

2. Great opportunity for the 
exercise and demonstration 
of these endowments 

3. Great motives and purposes 
in the use of the endowments 
so that they are not wasted 
on trifling or vicious things 

'"THERE is no mysterious process 
by which a pigmy can be 
transformed into a giant. Men of 
inferior capacity do not do things 
of the first magnitude. Large en- 
dowments are prerequisite to large 
achievements. A field rifle cannot 
cover the range of the higher pow- 
ered guns, it hasn't the capacity. 
The really great man must be mor- 
ally great, intellectually superior 
and possessing the dynamic energy 
necessary to carry forward success- 
fully great enterprises. 

Referring briefly to the second 
of these — the opportunity to dem- 
onstrate one's ability — it is pos- 
sible that many men of potential 
powers are never discovered. Per- 
[Continued on page 672] 

is no ordi- 
nance connected with the Gospel 
of Jesus Christ of greater import- 
ance, of more solemn and sacred 
nature, and more necessary to the 
eternal joy of man, than, marriage. 
Yet there is no principle which has 
been made the butt of coarser 
jokes, a greater jest by the vulgar 
and the unclean, and even by many 
who think themselves refined, than 
that of marriage. 

Marriage is a principle which, 
when entered, presents more seri- 
ous problems than any other. It 
should be received in the spirit of 
patience and love, even that greater 
love which comes through the 
power of the Holy Spirit. Nothing 
will prepare mankind for glory 
in the kingdom of God as readily 
as faithfulness to the marriage 
covenant. Through this covenant, 
perhaps more than any other, we 
accomplish the perfect decree of 
the Divine will, but this covenant 
is only one of many required of 
man who seeks to do the will of 
the Father. 

TF properly received this covenant 
becomes the means of the great- 
est happiness. The greatest honor 
in this life, and in the life to come, 
honor, dominion and power in 
perfect love, are the blessings which 
come out of it. These blessings 
of eternal glory are held in reserve 
for those who are willing to abide 
in this and all other covenants of 
the Gospel. Others shall not be 
so blessed. Marriage is the grand- 
est, most glorious and most exalt- 
ing principle connected with the 
Gospel. It is that which the Lord 
holds in reserve for those who be- 
come his sons and daughters; all 
others are servants only, even if 
they gain salvation. They do not 
become members of the household 
of our Father and our God if they 
refuse to receive the celestial cove- 
nant of marriage. 

The abuse of this ordinance has 
been the primary cause of the 
downfall of nations. When the 
sacredness of the marriage covenant 
is lost, and the vows are broken, 
destruction is inevitable. This 
principle cannot be received in the 
spirit of contempt and indifference. 
It is ordained to be more, far more, 


Law of 



of the Council of the Twelve 

Let virtue garnish thy thoughts un- 
ceasingly; then shall thy countenance 
wax strong in the presence of God; 
and the doctrine of the priesthood shall 
distil upon thy soul as the dews from 
heaven. — D. C. 121:45. 

than a civil contract. No nation 
can survive the abuse of this prin- 
ciple. Rome, Greece, Babylon, 
Egypt, and many other nations 
owe their downfall to the break- 
ing of the sacred covenant of mar- 
riage. The anger of a just God 
was kindled against them for their 
immorality. The bones of dead 
civilizations on, this American con- 
tinent bear silent but convincing 
evidence that it was unchastity and 
the disregard of this sacred cove- 
nant which brought them to their 
final judgment. 

VTOTHING should be held in 
-^ greater sacredness and honor 
than; the covenant by which the 
spirits of men — the offspring of 
God in the spirit — are privileged 
to come into this world in mortal 
tabernacles. It is through this 
principle that the blessing of im- 
mortal glory is made possible. The 
greatest punishment ever given was 
proclaimed against Lucifer and his 
angels. To be denied the priv- 
ilege of mortal bodies forever is 
the greatest curse of all. These 
spirits can have no progress, no 
hope of resurrection and eternal 
life! Doomed are they to eternal 
misery for their rebellion! And 
then to think that we are not only 
privileged, but commanded to as- 
sist our Father in the great work 
of redemption by giving to his 
children, as we have obtained these 
blessings for ourselves, the right to 
live and continue on even, to per- 
fection! No innocent soul should 

be condemned to come into this 
world under a handicap of illegiti- 
macy. Every child has the tight 
to be well born! Every individual 
who denies them that right is 
guilty of a mortal sin. 

The importance of these mortal 
tabernjacles is apparent from the 
knowledge we have of eternal life. 
Spirits cannot be made perfect 
without the body of fle^h and 
bones. This body and its spirit 
are brought to immortality and 
blessings of salvation through the 
resurrection. After the resurrec- 
tion there can be no separation 
again, body and spirit become in- 
separably connected that man may 
receive a fulness of joy._ In no 
other way, other than birth into 
this life and the resurrection, can 
spirits become like our eternal 

CINCE the kingdom of God is 
^ built upon the foundation of 
marriage and the unity of the fam- 
ily circle, there can be no satis- 
faction where the family circle is 
broken. Every soul is entitled to 
the right to come into this world 
in a legitimate way — in the way 
the Father has willed that souls 
should come. Whosoever takes a 
course contrary to this is guilty 
of an almost irreparable crime. Is 
there any wonder, then, that the 
Lord places the violation of this 
covenant of marriage and the loss 
of virtue, as second only to the 
shedding of innocent blood? Is 
there n ; ot, then, sufficient reason 
for the severity of the punishment 
which has been promised to those 
who violate this eternal law? 
Moreover, have we not forgotten 
in large measure the enormity of 
the crime of unchastity , and break- 
ing of marriage vows? Do those 
who are guilty think the enormity 
of the offense of maliciously or 
wickedly tampering with the laws 
of life, will be overlooked by a 
just God? Do they think that 
only a few stripes, if any punjish- 
ment at all, will amend this brok- 
en law? The demand for per- 
sonal purity is made by the Church 
upon both men and women, equal- 
ly. There is no double standard 
of judgment. "If purity of life 


The Improvement Era for September, 1931 

is neglected," President Joseph F. 
Smith once said, "all other dan- 
gers set in, upon us like the rivers 
of water when the flood gates are 
opened." Sexual impurity is a 
most deadly sin. Anciently it was 
considered so, and according to the 
law of God, those who were guilty 
were in danger of being put to 
death. There are sins unto death, 
John informs us, and this is one 
of them : Said John : 

If any man see his brother sin a sin 
ivhtch is not unto death, he shall ask, and 
he shall give him life for them that sin 
not unto death. Thece is a sin unto death : 
I do not say that he shall pray for it. 

All unrighteousness is sin: and there i-. 
a sin not unto death. — I John 5:16-17. 

Murder, the shedding of inno- 
cent blood, is a sin unto death, and 
Alma taught Corianton that un- 
chastity was second only to mur- 
der. These are his words: 

Know ye not, my son, that these things 
are an abomination in the sight of the 
Lord; yea, most abominable above all sins 
save it be the shedding of innocent blood 
or denying the Holy Ghost? — Alma 39:5. 

SMITH commenting on this 
teaching has given us this instruc- 

We accept without reservation or quali- 
fication the affirmation of Deity, through 
an ancient Nephite Prophet: For I, the 
Lord God, delight in the chastity of 
women. And whoredoms are an abom- 
ination before me: thus saith the Lord cf 
Hosts. — Jacob 2:28. 

We hold that sexual sin is second only 
to the shedding of innocent blood in the 
category of personal crimes; and that the 
adulterer shall have no part in the exalta- 
tion of the blessed. * * * 

He that looketh on a woman to lust 
after her, or if any shall commit adultery 
in their hearts, they shall not have the 
Spirit, but shall deny the faith. — -Im- 
provement Eta 20:738. 

We are not here to practice immorality 
of any kind. Above all things, sexual 
immorality is most heinous in the sight 
of God. It is on a par with murder itself, 
and God Almighty fixed the penalty of 
the murderer at death. Whoso sheddeth 
man's blood, by man shall his blood be 
shed. Furthermore, he said that whoso- 
ever committeth adultery should be put to 
death. Therefore, we raise our voices 
against sexual immorality, and against all 
manner of obscenity. — Gospel Doctrine, 
p. 291. 

* YOUNG was also very em- 
phatic in his denunciation of this 
evil, and I feel that we cannot be 
too emphatic in denouncing it. It 
is very prevalent and a universal 
evil. The world is fast coming to 
its destruction because of it. "Learn 
the will of God," said President 

Young, "keep his commandments 
and do his will, and you will be 
a virtuous person." How won- 
derful is the peace and the joy 
which fills, the soul of the virtuous 
person! How terrible are the tor- 
ments of the unvirtuous! They 
shall have no place in the first res- 
urrection. When the final judg- 
ment comes they are they who 
remain "filthy still." They can- 
not enter the Holy City, they are 
the "dogs, and sorcerers, and 
whoremongers, and murderers, 
and idolaters, and whosoever lov- 
eth and maketh a lie," who are 
cast out. 

President Young further said : 

The defiler of the innocent is the one 
who should be branded with infamy and 
cast out from respectable society, and 
shunned as a pest, or, as a contagious dis- 
ease, is shunned. The doors of respectable 
families should be closed against him, and 
he should be frowned upon by all high- 
minded and virtuous persons. Wealth, in- 
fluence and position should not screen him 
from their righteous indignation. His sin 
is one of the blackest in the calendar of 
crime, and he should be cast down from 
the high pinnacle of respectability and 
consideration, to find his place among the 
worst of felons.- — -Discourses, p. 300. 

"VWHEN man was first placed up- 
on this earth he was given 
the commandment to "be fruitful 
and multiply." No more important 
commandment was ever given to 
man, for, through honorable mar- 
riage are the spirits brought to 
earth. "There are multitudes of 
pure and holy spirits waiting to 
take tabernacles; now what is our 
duty?" said President Young. 
Then he answered his question 
thus: "To prepare tabernacles for 
them; to take a course that will 
not tend to drive those spirits into 
the families of the wicked, where 
they will be trained in wickedness, 
debauchery, and every species of 
crime. It is the duty of every 
righteous man and woman to pre- 
pare tabernacles for all the spirits 
they can." Discourses 456. 

Instructing the mothers of the 
Church, President Joseph F. Smith 
said in June, 1917: 

I regret, I think it is a crying evil, that 
there should exist a sentiment or a feeling 
among any members of the Church to cur- 
tail the birth of their children. I think 
that is a crime wherever it occurs, where 
husband and wife are in possession of 
health and vigor and are free from im- 
purities that would be entailed upon their 
posterity. I believe that where people 
undertake to curtail or prevent the birth 
of their children that they are going to 
reap disappointment by and by. I have 

no hesitancy in saying that I believe that 
is one of the greatest crimes of the world 
today, this evil practice. — Relief Society 
Magazine, 4:314. 

TJ[7HEN young people marry and 
W refuse to fulfill this com- 
mandment given in the beginning 
of the world — and just as much 
in force today — they rob them- 
selves of the greatest eternal bless- 
ing. If the love of the world and 
the wicked practices of the world 
mean more to a man and a woman 
than to keep the commandment of 
the Lord in this respect, then they 
shut themselves off from the eter- 
nal blessing of increase. Those 
who wilfully and maliciously de- 
sign to break this important com- 
mandment shall be damned. They 
cannot have the spirit of the Lord. 
Small families is the rule today. 
Husbands and wives refuse to take 
upon themselves the responsibili- 
ties of family life. Many of them 
do not care to be bothered with 
children. Yet this commandment 
given to Adam has never been 
abrogated or set aside. If we re- 
fuse to live by the covenants we 
make, especially in the house of 
the Lord, then we cannot receive 
the blessings of those covenants in 
eternity. If the responsibilities of 
parenthood are wilfully avoided 
here, then how can the Lord be- 
stow upon the guilty the blessings 
of eternal increase? It cannot be, 
and they shall be denied such bless- 

Who am I, saith the Lord, that have 
promised and have not fulfilled? 

I command and men obey not; I re- 
voke and they receive not the blessing. 

Then they say in their hearts: This is 
not the work of the Lord, for his prom- 
ises are not fulfilled. But wo unto such. 
for their reward lurketh beneath, and not 
from above. — Doc. S Cov. 58:31-33. 

The world is rapidly coming to 

its end, that is, the end of the days 

of wickedness. When it is fully 

ripe in iniquity the Lord will come 

in the clouds of heaven to take 

vengeance on the ungodly, for his 

wrath is kindled against them. Do 

not think that he delayeth his 

coming. Many of the signs of his 

coming have been given, so we 

may, if we will, know that the 

day is even now at our doors. 

And it shall come to pass, because of 
the wickedness of the world, that I will 
take vengeance upon the wicked, for they 
will not repent; for the cup of mine in- 
dignation is full; for behold, my blood 
shall not cleanse them if they hear me not. 
—Doc. Cov. 29:17. 

Facing, Life 


What is Success? 

"The Lord sure made a Success 
of this job." 

THIS observation was made 
by a tourist on the north 
rim of the Grand Canyon of 
the Yellowstone while I was pon- 
dering an introduction to this ar- 
ticle under the inspiration of one 
of the most beautiful scenes in the 
world. No one can stand in ad- 
miration at the glories of this 
wonder chasm without agreeing 
with the tourist, "Here is Success." 

It is a heartening expression. 
Everybody likes it. Men would 
have it said of their performances. 
We spend a life-time in its pursuit, 
hopeful that in some degree at 
least we may achieve it. And 
yet it is one of those elusive terms. 
Even when we seem most to be 
approaching it, it may be vanish- 
ing under the guise of a mistaken 

WHETHER or not we shall be 
able to make clear just what 
Success is, it will be genuinely 
worth while to you to attempt to 
work out your own concept of it. 
If this article prompts you to un- 
dertake that task it may be worth 
the reading even though you search 
for your answer through the years 
of your lifetime. It is a blessed 
experience to face reality — to chal- 
lenge life with the query, "What 
Is It All About?" 

That many readers have already 
turned over such a question is re- 
flected in the fact that they have 
sent in letters since the beginning 
of this series of articles in which 
they have made the observation 
that perhaps we were overlooking 
some of the ultimate values in life. 
Not all of these letters can be given 
consideration in an article of this 
length, but the outstanding queries 
can be hinted by setting down 
typical extracts: 

"Don't you place too much em- 

phasis upon mere material sue- 
cess r 

"Does a man have to make a 
lot of money to be considered a 
success? Is wealth the chief cri- 
terion of achievement?" 

"Isn't the Fear of the Lord the 
sum total of life?" 

"What is a man profited, if he 
shall gain the whole world and 
lose his own soul?" 

"Don't the two great command- 
ments say that a man's full duty 
is to love God and his fellow- 

"Isn't money the root of all 

"If I live in honor and rear a 
creditable family and attend to 
my religious duties, haven't I done 
what is expected of me?" 

These, and other such questions, 
are full of interest. They indicate 
an effort to solve the riddle of 
life. They reflect a system of 
teaching born out of wholesome, 
pioneering experience. 

AND now you and I find our- 
■** selves challenged with the 
question, "What, after all, is Suc- 
cess?" I just wish that I might 
listen in on your reflections before 
I attempt to set down my own 
convictions. But since that can't be 
done, let's put down the best ob- 
servations that suggest themselves, 
feeling certain that when all is said 
and done we can perhaps only 
start a train of thought which 
someone some day will fully am- 
plify for us. 

At the outset we shall have to 
make some general observations. 
In the first place most terms, like 
Success, are used relatively. They 
are too complex and subtle to be 
made absolute with clearcut boun- 
dary lines of meaning. In the 
use of such words we must be 
content with a certain "more or 
lessness" rather than an "either- 
or-ness." Success is such a richly 
comprehensive term. One might 

almost say that there are different 
degrees of success — almost differ- 
ent kinds. Some one quality or 
performance of a person may be 
so outstanding as to stamp that 
person as successful. One notable 
achievement may balance a lifetime 
of mediocrity in popular fancy. 
Then, too, it is inevitable that 
people will vary in their estimates 
as to what constitutes success. It 
is quite likely beyond the scope of 
a reasonable hope to have all men 
accept a common standard. And 
yet, after having made due allow- 
ance for those heroic, epoch-mak- 
ing, single achievements which al- 
ways must carry an echo of suc- 
cess, I am inclined to submit, for 
your turning through, the thought 
that an even balance, making for 
a well-rounded development of all 
man's potentialities, is the key to 
the kind of success most significant 
to the race as a whole and to you 
and me as we project our tomor- 

HHHOUGHT is tantalizing — just 
A when I have risked writing 
down the above generalization, 
shades of Napoleon — of Edison — 
of Lindbergh, and of a hundred 
others of near genius variety dark- 
en my page to give the lie to my 

Even so I shall give you my 
recipe for success. If you feel the 
urge of genius, disregard the recipe 
and carve your success out of some 
notable performance. 

For most of us success will lie 
largely in the fullest realization 
of our capabilities in one or more 


The Improvement Era for September, 1931 

of the following five achievements 
— he will be greatest who achieves 
most in all five fields: 

well done. Such a piece of work 
to do that we can enjoy the doing 
of it — and that out of it we can 
earn a livelihood- — -that we can 
bring up those dependent upon us 
so that they may enjoy the major 
privileges of life. Our work will 
be most satisfying and therefore 
lend itself most to success if 
through it we are permitted to 
bring joy to others than ourselves. 

I trust that this is not laying 
too sordid a foundation in materi- 
ality. Life is complex, but its 
basis is physical. We must eat 
to survive, and we must pay for 
our food. WORTHY WORK 
has ever been the primal injunc- 
tion. Out across the gates of Eden 
echoed the admonition: 

"By the sweat of thy brow." 

OUCCESS can never be parasitic. 
*^ It rests upon a platform of 
performance. Even the gifted few, 
to whom reference has already 
been made, were tremendous work- 
ers. If you and I find any meas- 
ure of success, it will likely be 
doled out to us in keeping with 
our own measure of honest toil. 

ABLE HOME. Along with that 
primeval order to labor went the 
injunction to multiply and re- 
plenish the earth. That great 
bridge between Godhood and 
manhood, as summarized in the 
Ten Commandments, is built up- 
on the cement of honor to Father 
and Mother. 

The home is the great haven 
of happiness. All else seems cold 
and empty if the thought of home 
isn't coupled thereto. Certainly 
the glory of motherhood is chil- 
dren as they are the honor of fa- 
therhood. Think of a factory 
or a five acre farm wonderfully 
operated as compared with five 
fine sons to do honor to a father's 

T AM mindful that it is not given 
•*• to all men and women to rear 
families. To them Success lies 
in other honorable pursuits. But 
this must be a general recipe. And 
for mankind generally, what suc- 
cess can compare with a worthy 
family? Personally, I regard it as 

the greatest achievement possible to 
men and women. It is so beau- 
tifully a joint attainment. When 
death sounds his summons, parents 
may leave behind them many 
things: wealth, lands, writing, po- 
sitions held in honor, scientific 
contributions — they may leave a 
great variety of heritages — but all 
of them pale into insignificance 
when compared with a group of 
boys and girls grown into man- 
hood and womanhood to add lustre 
to a name already bequeathed to 
them in honor. And what of 
lands and gold if attendant upon 
their winning come trailing one's 
own offspring, one's own very 
flesh and blood, in disrespect or 
otherwise out of neglected nurture? 
To watch one's own come into 
the full stature of manhood and 
womanhood in their richness and 
worthiness of maturity is heaven 
upon earth. 

BILTY. All of us are richly the 
beneficiaries of civilization. Out 
across the ages our progenitors 
have taken out with Time insur- 
ance policies in our favor. We are 
heirs of all that has ever been done. 
The riches of the world's thought 
are wrapped about us as We are 
cradled into mortality. What the 
home has done and still does for 
us has already been hinted. But 
we are builded outside the home 
too. The three other great agencies 
are The State, The School, The 
Church. Think how your life has 
been enriched by the benefactions 
of those three institutions. It is 
hard, isn't it, fully to appreciate 
what it means to have been born 
in a land of freedom — to have 

been protected against the dangers 
of a social order — to have been 
made free to enjoy all that a rich 
land can hold in store for you? 
Can you imagine what your life 
might be if there had never, touched 
it the enriching forces of t\he 
School? Can you picture yourself 
illiterate? Shut your eyes to the 
reading that has blessed your life. 

Or can you realize the mellow- 
ing influence of the Church? What 
has been the effect of the urge to 
Christian kindliness and to sancti- 
ty of life? Deny to childhood the 
beauty and reverence of worship? 
An emptiness akin to the banish- 
ment of Santa Claus! 

AND if these institutions have 
■*■* thus protected, enriched and 
expanded our lives, Success must 
involve our giving back to civiliza- 
tion some little championing of 
these great agencies. The success- 
ful man discharges a civic responsi- 
bility — he builds where his build- 
ing blesses others in keeping with 
the benediction which still others 
have brought to him. No man 
is successful to himself alone. Suc- 
cess is essentially social. 


What has been said of institu- 
tions is equally true of persons. 
We are all part of one another. 
"Am I My Brother's Keeper" still 
echoes down the lanes of life. We 
are FELLOW-MEN — compan- 
ions on the way. 

"Greatness lies not in being strong, but 
in the right use of strength, and strength 
is not used rightly when it serves only 
to carry a man above his fellows for his 
own solitary glory, He is the greatest 
whose strength carries up the most hearts 
by the attraction of his own." — Bryant. 

'THE really successful man so 
conducts himself that his fel- 
lows love to honor him. They 
bless his name. They reach out 
in kindliness toward him. The 
successful man works with one eye 
on the welfare of his fellows. He 
so acts that the echo of his own 
life is a reflection of the kindness 
which he has manifested. The 
beauty of this aspect of success is 
that it can be cultivated by the 
[Continued on page 686] 

eMan Gains 


Over the 





B. Y. U. 

RECENT years have found 
man attempting to control 
the sanitary situation in our 
big cities. It has been known that 
the wastes of man were responsible 
for many of the plagues and 
scourges of the past. How to con- 
trol these wastes has directed the 
attention of man for many years. 
In some of our American cities 
sewage has been allowed to run 
into streams or lakes or some other 
body of water. If the stream was 
of sufficient size that there was 
not such a concentration of sewage 
that it would become a nuisance, 
that was all right. Some towns 
have run the sewage into water 
channels which were dry part of 
the year. Odors have developed 
which were objectionable. Some- 
times coagulants such as lime, alum 
and other compounds, to clear the 
sewage, have been used. Attempts 
have been made to allow the sew- 
age to flow through septic tanks; 
that is, tanks which permit bac- 
terial activity to bring into solu- 
tion the solid organic materials. 
It has been run through different 
kinds of filter beds. It has been 
run on to large tracts of land and 
used as a fertilizer. All of these 
methods have been and are being 
used to control the great streams 
of human waste which leave our 
great cities. These methods have 
much to recommend them but the 

city of Munich, Germany, with 
her population of 800,000, has 
worked out a unique method for 
the control of sewage. This city 
has not only solved the problem 
but it has also made it into a profit- 
able business enterprise. 

"CIVE years ago a 50 acre piece 
of land was acquired by the 

city. Settling tanks, intake canals, 
gas collecting apparatus, ponds for 
fish and duck raising were built. 
Through these the sewage is col- 
lected and turned in;to a source of 
income instead of an aggravated 

Sewage water from the city of 
Munich comes into the sewage 
plant in a canal about twelve feet 
wide and six feet deep, at a rate 
of 100 to 200 cubic feet per sec- 
ond — about the flow of the 1. Straw- 
berry Project canal at Spanish 
Fork, Utah — in times of dry 
weather, and at a rate of 350 to 
700 cubic feet per second, during 
the rainy seasons — that is about 
as much water as ordinarily flows 
in Jordan river. It passes through 
a coarse iron screen and a coarse 
sand filter. From there this sew- 
age water flows into a series of 
settling tanks about 40 feet deep. 
In an hour 80% of the solid mat- 
ter settles to the bottom, and the 
clear water, if it is considered safe, 
runs into the river. To test the 

safety of the water, small quanti- 
ties are pumped into an aquarium 
laboratory where fish are kept. If 
the fish live it is assumed that the 
water is safe to pass into the river. 
If the fish die then further dilution 
of the sewage water must take 

The water that passes into the 
river is readily made safe by the 
dilutions brought about by the 
river water, the settling out pro- 
cess, the rapid utilization of the 
organic water by the bacteria, and 
the germicidal effect of the sun. 

HPHE organic matter which settles 
•*■ to the bottom of the tanks, 
decomposes at a rapid rate. Cement 
covers have been built over the 
receptacles anjd the gas which ac- 
cumulated due to decomposition, is 
collected into pipes and conveyed 
to a gas mixing plant. There, 
it is mixed with coal gas and and 
air until a very desirable combina- 
tion of gas for illumination and 
cooking purposes is formed. This 
is then sold to the citizens of Mu- 
nich. The sewage gas is about 
twice as valuable for illumination 
and cooking purposes as ordinary 
coal gas is. 

Much of the water which flows 

from this sewage plant is mixed 

with river water at a rate of four 

parts river water to one part sewage 

[Continued on page 688] 

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Word of Wisdom Exhibit 


ONE of the most effective 
steps ever taken for a long 
time to combat the evils 
against which the Word of Wis- 
dom warns, was the public ex- 
hibition conducted by the Mutual 
Improvement Associations of the 
Church incidental to the June 
Convention of this year. 

A spacious building, on the east 
side of Main Street, between South 
Temple and First South Streets, 
was used for the display, which 
was open from June 9th to 22nd, 

The purpose of the undertaking 
was, obviously, to teach the Word 
of Wisdom; and in a very effective 
way. Those who are commercial- 
ly interested in the sale and dis- 
tribution of tobacco, tea, coffee, or 
any such products have conducted 
a publicity and sales campaign 
which has been a masterpiece of 
advertising. They have made their 
wares look so attractive and appe- 
tizing by means of poster, radio 
and press, that the counter-cam- 
paign conducted by this and other 
organizations, largely from the 
pulpit, has been minimized in ef- 

Quite wisely, therefore, this ef- 
fort was made to let the truth be 
known about the actual effects of 
these things, against which the 
Latter-day Saints have divine 

A SMALL exhibit was conduct- 
*^ ed by the Church in Dresden, 
Germany, in connection with a 
world fair there, but this is the 
first time that a Word of Wisdom 
Exhibit, conducted entirely as 
such, has been held. It was a 
display of charts, poster and pam- 
phlet literature, pictures, models, 
apparatus for conducting chemical, 
physiological or mental tests, mov- 
ing pictures, findings and exhorta- 
tions of leading men and women 
in all fields, and every conceivable 
means of putting over the message 
of mental, physical and spiritual 

To conduct the exhibit, after 
all the preliminary work of or- 
ganization and preparation, a 
corps of willing, intelligent, vol- 
unteer workers, in groups of twen- 
ty-five gave an average of six hours 
each day spent in meeting the vis- 
itors, showing them around the 
exhibits, conducting experiments, 

explaining the information there 
available, and in distributing liter- 
ature to the eager readers. 

It is estimated that over forty 
thousand visitors saw the exhibit, 
and the amount of good that was 
done to them, and through them 
to others, is incalculable. Original- 
ly intended to run for one week the 
display was prolonged to meet the 
desires of the many who _ wished 
to see it. 

CPLENDID and helpful coopera- 
^ tion was obtained by the com- 
mittee in charge from educational 
institutions, and from commercial 
houses, as well as from individuals, 
who loaned or donated equipment, 
apparatus or display material, as 
well as making available valuable 
information for this campaign for 
temperance and abstinence. Near 
and distant sources were drawn 
upon to make the exhibit com- 
pletely effective. Moving pictures 
were imported from far-off Ger- 
many, which told their tale about 
the harmful effects of nicotine, al- 
cohol and caffein upon the effi- 
ciency of body and mind. 

A number of devices were in 
use to conduct experiments on and 
for the visitors which show how 

The Improvement Era for September, 1931 


mental and physical efficiency can 
be measured, and the effects of 
harmful habits upon ability. In 
addition, heart-testing and other 
physical efficiency measures were 
available to the many, who were 
astounded when they learned the 
truth about themselves. And that, 
might it be said in pas- 
sing, was the intent of 
the exhibit, that people 
might indeed learn the 
truth about themselves, 
and their environmen- 
tal influences of which 
the Word of Wisdom 
indicates a few. 

Many of the leaflets 
and pamphlets which 
were distributed 
proved to be enor- 
mously popular, note- 
worthy among them 
being a little page 
"How to Cure the 
Cigaret Habit," by Dr. 
D. H. Kress. Of these, 
some 10,000 were giv- 
en out during the ex- 
hibit, of which about 
1000 were given to 
people who affirmatively asked for 
the leaflet, indicating a real desire 
to get hold of it and the fine plan 
it outlines. A surprisingly large 
number of visitors asked if some 
tobacco cure were available, and 
indicated an honest desire to use 
that which was given them. 

A GREAT number of most il- 
**■ luminating statistics were giv- 
en out by means of posters and 
leaflets; statistics which have been 
gathered by the Church itself, and 
also by many worthy organiza- 
tions, both 
religious and 
which paint 
the true pic- 
ture of the 
desirable ef- 
fects of tem- 
perance and 

and the ab- 
horrent con- 
sequences of 

and excess. 

"The Ti- 
tanic carried 
down 1503 
people - — 
Drink carries 

off 1503 men and women every 
eight days in the year." "Alco- 
holic drinks helped break up 9228 
homes every year." "One in 
every three husbands divorced for 
cruelty was intemperate." "One 
adult death from alcohol every 
eight minutes" (Pre-prohibition 

.: i 

hibit displayed posters telling the 
glad message that Latter-day 
Saints' social statistics show ful- 
fillment of the Lord's promise that 
obedience to the laws of better 
living will be rewarded by greater 
vitality, and longevity: 

Deaths from diseases of nervous 
system: (per 100,000) 

Six Nations L. D. S 
123 52 

from cancer: 

119 47 

from tuberculosis: 

120 9 

from diseases of digest- 
ive system: 

73 56 

from diseases of respi- 
ratory system: 
167 105 

from diseases of circu- 
latory system: 

196 ' 115 

Birthrate (per 1000): 
U.S. Utah L.D.S. 

Startling Poster Display 

fact in the U. S.) . "Child Death 
Rate Higher in Drinking Families: 
Abstaining parents, 13%, Im- 
moderate drinking parents, 32%."* 
"Death rates in pneumonia in- 
crease with alcoholic habits: Of 
abstainers sick, 18.5% died, of 
moderate drinkers sick, 25 % died, 
of immoderate drinkers sick, 
52.8% died." 

The above are excerpts from the 
poster display, and contain in- 
formation gleaned from the coun- 
try (some from foreign countries) 
at large. Another part of the ex- 

~ — 18.9 

24.8 3( 

Divorce rate: 


15 Nations 

L. D. S. 

Death rate: 

U. S. Utah 
11.4 9.1 

L. D. 

View of the Exhibit Hall 

These are just examples of the 
interesting and valuable informa- 
tion, of which there was much 
more, about the Latter-day Saint 
people. Such facts as these tell 
no other story than that the kind 
of lives these people are living 
more nearly accomplish the pur- 
pose for 
which life is 
given, and 
that is to 
lengthen, im- 
prove and 
continue it. 

**. ER thing 
which this 
exhibit ac- 
though a 
benefit not 
directly de- 
signed, was 
to show the 
world that 
[Cont. p. 673] 

"Mormon Boy Crowned World's 

Greatest Athlete 

"They say that those 
Mormon boys 
'Aint got no style; 
Got style all the while, 
Got style all the 


THAT old-time 
chaunt, homely 
in construction 
but filled with the all- 
conquering spirit of the 
pioneer athlete, has been 
heard all over the land, 
wherever Utah and her 
"Mormon" boys have 
gone into battle. The 
tone of conviction 
which this ancient war 
cry carries has been sus- 
tained in the heroic per- 
formances of the young 
men of the Beehive 
State and many have 
seen and believed in 

But it remained for 
a Latter-day Saint boy 
from Thatcher, Ari- 
zona, to attain the top- 
most pinnacle of indi- 
vidual athletic perfec- 
tion, emblazoning his 
name across the sports 
sections of the American 
daily newspapers with 
the same glaring fre- 
quency as that accorded 
Bobby Jones, Helen 
Wills, William Tilden 
II, Glenna Collett, and 
all those other national- 
ly important amateur 
sports luminaries in the 
heyday of their careers, 

J SEN, the athletic 
prodigy of the decade; 
world's greatest all- 
around track and field 
performer and a modest 
"Mormon" boy! 

On the mantel in the 




Jess Mortensen 

Captain of the 1930 track team, 
University of Southern Cali- 
fornia. Holder of Trojan javelin 
record at 204.975 feet. 

home of Martin Morten- 
sen, Sr., Arizona Pioneer,, 
is a neat little trophy case 
filled with medals, cups, 
plaques and certificates, 
giving striking evidence of 
the prowess of this gifted 
young man who has just re- 
cently established a world's- 
record for point scoring in 
winning the all-around track 
and field championships of 
the National Amateur Ath- 
letic Union. 

There are other awards 
there. They show that Jesse 
Mortensen was a real jack of 
all athletic trades at the Uni- 
versity of Southern California 
where he was A. A. U. cham- 
pion in the javelin throw, es- 
tablishing a recordof 204.975 
feet; that he was all-Pacific 
Coast conference forward in 
basketball; winner of the- 
famous "Gimble" medal at 
U. S. C. for the finest display 
of sportsmanship by any 
Trojan athlete; a two-year 
letterman in football; three- 
year letterman in track and 
three-year letterman in bas- 

But none of these prizes are- 

The Improvement Era for September, 1931 


more valuable to Mortensen than well, track ,and field; Howard 
those he won at Gila College, the Jones, football and Jack Barry, 

little Latter-day Saint institution 
where his extraordinary talents 
were given their initial develop- 
ment under the tutelage of Ernest 
Shumway, formerly of the Brig- 
ham Young University athletic 
teams. At little Gila, young 
Mortensen played basketball for 
four years, climaxing his prepara- 
tory career in this activity by 
his selection as all state for- WM 
ward in 1925. He turned 
in three years of participation 
in track and field, taking part 
in practically every event on 
the program in a most start- 
ling exhibition of a one-man 
track team. Then by way of 
further demonstrating his 
versatility, Jesse played three 
years of smashing tennis. 

basketball. Jesse was a natural 
athlete and with the advantage of 
the finest coaching possible to ob- 
tain, it was inevitable that he 
should reach the pinnacle. 

Mortensen's first attempt at 


HTHE recapitulation on the 
*■ performances of this phe- 
nomenal performer as he left 
Coach Shumway's squad 
showed he had achieved 
four letters in basket- 
ball, two in football, 
four in track and 
three in tennis. That 
he found time to 
study a little besides, 
is evident from the 
fact that he registered 
very close to a straight "A" 
grade in all his subjects. 

It was quite fitting that 
Mortensen as a student at the 
University of Southern California, 
should seek the counsel of Eugene 
L. Roberts, director of the school 
for coaches and physical directors 
in the great Los Angeles institu- 
tion. Coach Roberts, beloved 
daddy of athletics at Brigham 
Young University, had coached 
Ernest Shumway when the Gila 
college mentor was winning hon- 
ors on the old B. Y. U. basketball 
of 1921-22. Since it was Shum- 
way who started Arizona's great- 
est athlete on his way to fame, 
naturally the guardianship was 
passed on to the third "genera- 
tion." Coach Roberts had his new 
charge for two years as a major 
student in physical education and 
found him to be an outstanding 

But the actual coaching of Mor- 
tensen at U. S. C. devolved upon 
three of the greatest athletic di- 
rectors in the land, — Dean Crom- 

Jess Mortensen 

Right Half, University of Southern California 
1929 Football Team 

the decathlon, or all-around 

athletic championship, fell short 
of victory. Buster Charles, 
the great Indian performer, won 
the honor in 1930, but the gifted 
young man from Gila had the 
satisfaction of squaring his ac- 
count with the mighty Red- 
skin this year in the A. A. U. 
championships at Lincoln, Neb., 
July 3 and 4. In his great tri- 
umph Mortensen scored 8,193.29 
points, exceeding the present rec- 
ognized world's record of 8,- 
053.29 set at the 1928 Olympic 
Games at Amsterdam by Paavo 
Yrjola of Finland. 

■"PHIS performance also eclipsed 
-*- that of Kenneth Doherty, the 
former American record holder 
who scored 7,784.68 points and 
also the excellent figure set in the 
Kansas Relays by Jim Bausch of 
the Kansas City Athletic club 

whose mark was recorded at 7,- 

The best performance set by 
Mortensen in the A. A. U. cham- 
pionships came in the javelin, 
which he wafted 198 feet. He 
negotiated the 1 1 0-yard high hur- 
dles in 15.6 seconds and ran 400 
meters in 51.1 seconds. The ten 
events were run off in a two-day 

T'HE detail scoring of this 
Latter-day Saint boy's 
H stupendous performance fol- 
« P lows : 

100 meters — 11 seconds, 
904 points. 

400 meters — 51.1 seconds, 
890.96 points. 

1500 meters — -4 minutes, 
52.6, 665.20 points. 

110-yard high hurdles — 
15.6 seconds, 943 points. 

Broad jump — 21 feet, 3% 
inches, 756.17 points. 

Shot put — 44.01 feet, 
807.43 points. 

High jump — 5.71 feet, 
748 points. 

Discus throw — 130.42 
feet, 792.60 points. 

Pole vault— 11.155, 703 
HH points. 

Javelin throw — 198 feet, 
982.13 points. 

Grand total of Points — 

Former world's record — 

Mortensen is the second 
"Mormon" athlete to win the 
national A. A. U. decathlon. 
Alma Richards, mighty all-around 
performer from Brigham Young 
University and Cornell, proved 
himself the best man in the coun- 
try in these ten events the year 
the championships were held in 
connection with the San Francisco 
exposition. This huge fellow 
from Utah's Dixie country had 
a great chance to win again at 
Newark but struck a hurdle and 
lost all the points in this event. 

But ( 'even the igreat Richards, 
Olympic star and master of many 
track specialties, could not compile 
anything like the total of points 
made by Mortensen this year. No 
doubt Richards excelled in the 
high jump, Jpole vault and the 
weight events, but on the track 
he probably would have had little 
chance with the Arizona rambler. 

[Continued on page 661] 



Photos by 

George Stokes 

(Stokes Studio) 

DREAM, O Youth! Dream 
nobly, dream manfully, 
and your dream shall be 
your prophet." 

Eighty-four years ago a sturdy 
band of pioneers dreamed a dream 
of a new city, founded in a wilder- 
ness and built for peace and free- 
dom of worship. On July twen- 
ty-fourth, this year, their descend- 
ants and others who have bene- 
fited by their industry celebrated 
the historic journey across the 
plains in the city which these 
dreams realized. 

Nearly every modern detail of 
the celebration, more or less com- 
monplace to this generation, would 
have been astonishing to the hardy 
settlers could they have envisioned 
it as they swung their teams into 
the valley so long ago. The streets 
bright with flags bearing their 
names, the aeroplanes circling over 
the city, the immense crowds gath- 
ered to honor these first citizens, 
— all this would have filled them 
with wonder and reverent awe, 
for hardships had made them hum- 

'T'HEY might have sensed a little 
■*■ irony in the salute fired from 

Fort Douglas which began the fes- 
tivities, remembering that govern- 
ment troops had once marched 
through the city with orders to 
drive them from their homes; but 
they would have felt no resent- 
ment, since part of them had also 
served under the colors. Their 
amazement would have known no 
bounds if they could have watched 
the parade which featured the first 
day of the celebra- 

At the head 
rode army officers 
and city and state 
officials. Among 
them was Presi- 
dent Anthony W. 
Ivins, whose beau- 
tiful mount and 
excellent horse- 
manship inspired 
much admiration 
among the crowds. 
Himself a pioneer 
in southern Utah, 
and acquainted 
with every phase 
of frontier life, he 
must have vividly 
remembered many 
tragic scenes in im- 

pressive contrast to this elaborate 

pOLLOWING the 38th Infantry 
band was a car bearing a gray- 
haired lady, who was one of the 
first white children born in Utah. 
Behind her came riders clad in the 
picturesque costumes of the Span- 
ish settlers, the Indians, and fur 
traders. There were also a num- 
ber of real Indians from 
the Cherokee reservation 
who took a prominent 
part in the events of the 


The Improvement Era for September, 1931 


week. Directly after these came 
three riders representing the ad- 
vance company which entered the 
valley July 21st, and in the back 
of a wagon following them rode 
a character portraying Brigham 
Young, as, weakened by a fever, he 
sat up in his bed and announced 
to the footsore travelers that they 
had reached their destination. 

oxen on this occasion. There were 
several ox-teams in the parade and 
also at the municipal airport on 
the following day, where a strik- 
ing contrast was presented between 
them and the planes drawn 

"REHIND their leader came doz- 
ens of covered wagons and 
handcarts, many of them genuine 
relics of the trek across 
the plains. There were 
weatherbeaten< outfits 
drawn by ox-teams, in 
which rode calico-clad 
women churning or hold- 
ing babies; and dilapi- 
dated wagons, loaded 
with tools, bedding and 
furniture. Some had ad- 
ded realistic touches by 
carrying chickens and 
dogs. Behind them 
walked others pulling 
handcarts; and in the 
record-breaking heat of the scorch- 
ing pavements, they must have 
realized to the fullest extent what 
the members of the early com- 
panies had to bear. Many of the 
wagons carried interesting legends 
concerning their histories. One 
bore the first ox shoeing outfit in 
Utah, another held the bed which 
belonged to general Wells. One 
group of covered wagons had 
traveled the entire distance from 

Fillmore, bringing greetings from plane — not so different from these 
Utah's first capitol. — had completely circled the globe. 

Scores of colorful floats were en- With all their faith, the early 
tered by various business firms, "bull-whackers" would scarcely 
clubs, and civic organizations. One have believed such a feat possible; 
depicted the first school in Utah, and could they have seen the 

up not far away. 

It had taken the 

heavy, slow-footed 

months to 
the journey 
Illinois to 
Utah; while in less 
than nine days a 


its teacher and pupils being lineal 
descendants of the original group. 
Others portrayed 
the progress " 
made by com- 
merce and science 
since 1847. Some 
amusing were the 
old "horseless 
carriages" fur- 
nished by some 
of the automo- 
bile dealers of the 

Most of the 
younger specta- 
tors caught their 
first glimpses of 

"stunting" which followed the 
formal dedication of the airport, 

they would have considered it more 
of a miracle than the coming of 
the seagulls or the success of their 
first crops in a country where it was 
predicted corn would not mature. 

["RESPITE the terrific heat it is 
estimated that about 50,000 
people viewed the parade, and a 
large part of the crowd was 
at the airport to wit- 
ness the ceremonies and 
the flying exhibition on 
the 25 th. General W. 
G. Williams was in 
charge of the parade and 
was largely responsible 
for the smoothness which 
characterized this part of 
the fete. 
A climax was reached in the 
three-day program when the pag- 
eant, "The Spirit of Progress" was 
presented at the University of 
Utah stadium Saturday night. No- 
where could such a drama have 
been more effective than in that 
open amphitheatre at the foot of 
the hills. By dusk most of the 
20,000 spectators had assembled 
and at the opening scene nearly 
every seat was taken. 

The pageant, directed by James 
Cruze, who also directed the mov- 
ing picture, "The Covered 
Wagon," was divided into 
four parts. The first depict- 
ed the red men, the Indian 
idea being carried out effect- 
ively by characteristic music 
and dances. 

HTHE next episode portrayed the 
■"• coming of the pioneers, and 
was featured by stage coaches, 
covered wagons, handcarts, and 
pony express riders, forming a cav- 
alcade which circled the stadium 
track. Pioneer dances on the stage 
and on the lawn 
added color to 
the scene which 
closed with the 
dramatic picture 
of Brigham 
Young and his 
associates smok- 
ing the pipe of 
peace with the 
Indian braves. 

The third epi- 
sode presented 
the coming of the 
railroad and the 
driving of the 
[Cont. on page 670] 


'Twas a 




SUDDEN, sharp and proceeded to suit action to the 

bang added a staccato note to the words. 

popping of the engine. "The laddie has spoken? Then 

"My word — again?" A chorus I must act." And Bert grabbed 

of weary sighs arose from the back the other's feet and deposited him, 

seat. The brakes screeched in an- with an array of suitcases, on the 

swer as our 1928 prairie schooner 
slid to a stop. Chauffeur Bert 
shrugged his shoulders in disgusted 
surrender, then opened the door of 
the dilapidated, over-loaded flivver 
and stepped out to drown his sor- 
rows in the rain. But not even 
a flat tire — another one — could 
make him lose his desire to drama- 
tize every situation. 

"Here we are," he announced 

wet desert sand. Henry and Harold 
came suddenly to life and bolted 
out the other side of the car. I 
turned and looked back at Dot. 

"Shall we stay in or shall we 
brave the elements and the lizards 
and seek the refreshing air of the 
bee-yootiful desert?" 

"Oh, let's get out," returned 
Dot. "Good grief, even watching 
the boys fix tires, old as that gets, 

The high cost of experience. 


with a grandioso bow as he threw beats sitting here." So we joined 
open the rear door. "Ladies, and the others. 

those you have with you, right 
this way to the great open spaces. 
To the left you see the great Hopi 
desert; to the right, more desert. 
And what is wrong with this pic- 
ture? Ah, yes! In the lower left 
hand corner is another of those 
ailments of tin horse flesh known 
as a punctured hoof. So for the 
love of mud," he 
added in a more 
matter-of-fact way, 
"pile out of there 
and let's get it 


travel - weary ad- 
venturers stirred 
enough to ease 
cramped limbs but 
after one look at 
the dull gray sky 
above, and the wet 
sand stretching to 
either side, settled 
back again. Art alone deigned to 

"Aw, go to — Sunday School, — 
or fix it yourself. I'm going to 
sleep." So saying, he threw his 
feet over the back of the front seat 

The tire was flat, all right. Hot 
desert sands can wreck any tire in 
a short time — especially if the tire 
has already served for an ordinary 
lifetime. The boys got out the 
tools, and in a short time had the 
offending tire off. A long, jagged 
rent put an end to all hopes of 

"Well, I guess that means the 
spare or nothing," remarked Bert. 
"We sure took our lives in our 
hands when we started out on this 
jaunt. Any of us can run a garage 
when we get back home. Ho-hum! 

JrOR the third time 
that day the spare was dragged 
off and for the third time adjudged 
hopeless. "Just count those patches 
on that tube already," groaned 
Harold. "Only eighteen! Looks 
like an exaggerated case of small- 

"It's gone, all right," agreed 
Art. "But what can we do? We 
wouldn't dare go on the rim, heav- 
ily loaded as we are." He turned 
to the driver and added sarcastical- 
ly, "All right, Mr. Bert, you're 
the little boy who never lets any- 
thing get the best of him. What 
do we do this time?" 

"That's easy," 
returned Bert, 
without hesitation. 
"You can hike 
ahead and get one." 

Art looked to see 
if Bert was serious. 
He was. "Why you 
poor fish! If it 
weren't raining I'd 
say the sun affected 
your unprotected 
dome. It's forty 
miles to Shiprock." 
"I know that, 
Art, but what else 
can be done!" 
"But forty miles — me — alone?" 
"You'll not be alone," Bert said 
consolingly. "There's Indians all 
along this road, and the coyotes 
will keep you from minding the 
silence after dark. I'll try to get 

The Improvement Era for September, 1931 


this tire fixed. Then we can move 
on and meet you on your way 
hack, or, with luck, we might even 
overtake you." 

"Fat chance of that." Art kicked 
at the ragged tube. "But why 
pick on me — alone?" 

"Because you've got the longest 
legs, I guess. One step of yours 
would make nearly three of Har- 
old's. And Henry could hardly 
be expected to go along, with his 
lame knee. And I'm the only 
one with ambition enough even to 
try to fix this tire, or to fix any- 
thing else that might go wrong if 
we do get started on. Besides, 
you stand a better chance of getting 
a ride if you're alone. People can 
make room for one more, but not 
always for two more. ' So run 
along, Pardner, you're unanimous- 
ly elected to be the life saving hero 
of this little expedition. Here's 
the money for the tire. Now 
shoo! We'll be seeing you." 

As Art swung off down the 
road Harold sang, 
"When the moon shines down 

upon the desert, 
We'll be waitin' underneath its 

And Dot added a line from a play 
we'd been discussing. "And re- 
member, Dahlink, when your feet 
get tired of walking, just think 
what a nice long ride the rest of 
you is getting for nothing." 

But we were all rather anxious, 
and asked Bert if it weren't rather 
dangerous, sending him off alone 
like that. 

"No, I don't think so. He'll 
be getting a ride in no time. 
There's lots of travel along this 
highway. Look, there comes some- 
one now." 

us, and again at our car. He must 
have doubted the old axiom which 
states that the lesser cannot contain 
the greater. And it was no won- 
der. Our little four-passenger 
Whippet was loaded to the limit 
when the crowd of us and our be- 
longings were piled into it. We 
sometimes marveled that our tires 
lasted as long as they did. 



LN a very few minutes 
a long, low touring car stopped 
beside our Dobbin. "What's the 
trouble? Can I help?" the man 
at the wheel inquired. 

"Just ruined our last tire. One 
of the gang just started ahead to 
get a new one. You could sure 
help by giving him a lift. Going 
far?" Harold was always the 
spokesman when strangers were to 
be addressed. 

"To Aztec. I'll be glad to take 
him along. So long." 

"So long. And thanks," we 

As the big car moved on, the 
driver looked at our car, then at 

HILE BERT worked 
we sat around and talked over our 
adventures of the past few months. 
Bert and Art had spent several 
seasons on the stage, and had de- 
cided that it would be a great lark 
to take out a company of their 
own and play in some of the small 
towns in Colorado, New Mexico, 
and Arizona. So they persuaded 
the rest of us to go along, includ- 
ing Henry Stevens, an older man 
who for several years had been 
a teacher of dramatics, and his 
wife to act as our director and 
chaperones. It hadn't taken much 
persuasion, for we were all eager 
to travel, and welcomed the chance 
to visit these states, renowned for 
their scenery. And we had en- 
joyed it. The beautiful parks and 
mountain drives of Colorado, the 
Aztec Memorial in New Mexico, 
and the Grand Canyon, the Paint- 
ed Desert, and the tropical beauty 
of Phoenix and southern Arizona 
were but a few of the things we 
were always to remember. It 
didn't matter that we never had 
many dollars ahead, or that many 
times we had to drive all night in 
order to keep an engagement to 
play on a rickety, dusty stage in 
some small mining or farming 
town. And if we had to make a 
bowl of "graveyard stew" do for 

our supper, and patch tires un- 
ceasingly, that, too, was part of 
the game. And in spite of every- 
thing, it was lots of fun. 

"Glory, I'm hungry." Dot re- 
minded us that we hadn't eaten 
for hours. 

"So say we, all of us," and, as 
usual, we turned to Bert for the 
remedy. He was ready. 

"We passed a trading post back 
there about two miles. Harold, 
you can hike back there. Get some 
pork and beans, some bread, or 
rolls if you can, and I guess you'd 
better bring some soda water. 
Lucky the sun isn't shining as it 
was the last time we crossed this 
old desert or we'd all be famished 
for a drink of water. Next trip 
we'll have a canteen, I'll bet." 
Bert handed out some more coin. 
He was the business manager and 
always carried the purse. "Hurry 
now, Harold. I think maybe I 
can have this tire fixed by the time 
you get back." 

"Want to come along, 'Tricia?" 
Harold knew how I loved to hike. 
But Bert settled the question. 

"You heard me say 'Hurry,' 
didn't you? I know how youjwo 
would hurry. Stop to sing for the 
birds and the bees, and gather cac- 
tus plants and horned toads for 
souvenirs to send back home. Ay 
tank mebbe so you better go 

"All right, Cheese — I mean 
Chief." And Harold started off 
in the opposite direction from the 
one Art had taken. 

"Anyway, you're my girl, see?" 
Bert laughed as I sat down beside 
him on the running board. 
"You're going to sit right here and 
hold these patches for me." I did. 
For some reason we always did 
just as Bert said for us to do. 


lFTER applying 
patches to several holes made in 
the tube by one murderous nail, 
we pumped the tube up and held 
our breath until we were sure it 
was going to hold. Then we ex- 
ecuted a little Indian war dance 
all our own and began to look 
for Harold. He'd been gone for 
some time, surely long enough to 
make that trip. We didn't want 
our supper wandering around on 
that lonely desert after dark. Fun- 
ny how important a can of beans 
can become. 


The Improvement Era for September, 1931 

Bert had the tire on. "Now, 
if it just doesn't give way when 
I let the car off the jack." Another 
breathless moment ensued till Dob- 
bin stood safely on its own feet. 

"I feel like a mother watching 
her child stand alone for the first 
time," breathed Henry. 

"Uh-huh. You look so very 
motherly, Henry," remarked Dot. 
Henry was much older than any of 
the rest of us, and looked worse 
for having gone three days without 
a shave. 

"Never mind, young lady. You 
look like something out of a waste- 
basket yourself. Desert air is sup- 
posed to put roses into one's 
cheeks, but desert rain has washed 
all the roses off yours." 

Bert interrupted them. "Why 
on earth doesn't that guy get here 
with the eats? We could start 
on now if he were here," 


E waited awhile, 
then walked to the top of the near- 
est raise. "Is that he?" I could 
see a moving speck in the road. 
Silence for a while, then Dot ex- 

"There's two!" 

"Two what?" Henry wanted to 

'That's what we all want to 
know. Maybe he's' bringing Patri- 
cia an Indian for a souvenir." Bert 
had never liked my habit of col- 
lecting relics since the day in Ash- 
fork when I left a cactus plant on 
the seat of the car. He would have 
to pick that certain place to sit 

The two specks turned out to be 
a small Indian boy and a cow, 
enroute from someplace to some- 
place else. As he came near where 
we stood, the boy stopped, looked 
us over, then drove his cow off 
the road and made a wide detour 
around us. Henry's wife took a 
look at her husband's whiskers 
and smiled. 

"That is an insult — when even 
the Indians fight shy of us." We 
agreed, but none of us felt like 
joking. It was too dark to see 
far now, and we were really wor- 

"Better go after him," Bert de- 
cided, starting back to the car. We 
unloaded the car to spare the tires 
as much as possible, then left Hen- 
ry to watch while the rest of us 
went to look for our belated sup- 
per. Nothing was said until we 

reached the trading-post where we 
supposed Harold had gone. The 
little old man who answered our 
questions said he had seen no one, 
"I was away for awhile," he went 
on. "Maybe he missed me and 
went on down to the Indian 
school. It's about sixteen - miles 
down the road, off to the right 
about a mile. There's a store 

We thanked him and went on, 
but were puzzled. How could 
Harold have known of the store, 
and why would he go on that far 
anyway? j 

"Maybe his tummy was as 
empty as mine," Dot suggested, 
rubbing that organ, "so he decided 
to go back to Gallup. How far 
is that?" 

I had been in the front seat 
watching the speedometer. "Only 
about forty miles. That's a mere 
nothing out here in this great 
country where the men are braves 
and the squaws do all the work." 

W E finally reached 
the road (if such it could be called) 
that led to the school. "Heaven 
spare our tires. We have no spare," 
Bert said solemnly as we swung 
into the deep ruts and headed for 
the group of lights we could see 
in the distance. We jolted along 
until we reached the whitewashed 
fence that surrounded the build- 
ings. Bert rushed in to ask for 
news of our wandering boy. When 
he returned we could see at once 

that he had found out something. 

"He said a boy was here and 
got food and drinks. It must have 
been Harold, but where could we 
have missed him?" 

"Don't ask me," was all the 
help I could offer. "But maybe 
he tried to take a short cut across 
the desert instead of following 
that crooked trail back to the high- 
way. How long ago was he here?" 

"Just after six. It's nearly nine 

Very quietly we rode back to 
the highway. It did no good to 
try to see around us. The night 
was black as pitch and there was 
nothing to break the silence but 
our engine. 

We turned back to the high- 
way, and started back to see if 
Henry had any better news. Sud- 
enly a lone figure stepped into the 
glare of our lights — a tired-look- 
ing young man with rumpled hair. 
He had a sack over his shoulder 
and his face was anxious as he 
waved to us to stop. 

"Thank heavens!" breathed 
Bert. Dot and I were beyond 

We stopped within a few feet 
of the man, who hurried to the 
car and stood beside us, still too 
dazzled by the lights to see any of 
us clearly. "Pardon me, Mister, 
but I wonder if you'd mind giving 
me a lift for a matter of about 
sixteen miles. There's some folks 
up there waiting for me and their 

We all laughed and Bert said, 
"Well, Harold, I guess we might. 
Hop in." 

"Goodness! Is it really you?" 
Harold was incredulous. 

"It is. Welcome back to our 
midst, Wanderer of the Waste- 
lands. Give an account of your- 


l.S we rode along, he 
told us there had been no one at 
the post except a man who was 
watering his horse at a muddy pool 
back of the building. This man 
had told him of the school store. 
"He said it was 'just a ways 
farther', so I kept on going 'just 
a ways farther' till I got there. 
I got the grub and started to cut 
across back to the highway. It 
got dark all of a sudden, and I 
got my directions hopelessly mixed. 
The lights of a passing car guided 

The Improvement Era for September, 1931 


me to the road, but somehow I 
got started off wrong, walked 
a long way, then a car stopped 
and the driver asked me where I 
was headed for. I said 'Colorado' 
and he said, 'You'd better turn 
around. We're headed for Ari- 
zona.' I made a hasty retreat, and 
not any too soon, I guess, or I'd 
have missed you again." 

We made short work of the 
beans, bread, and soda pop after 
we reached Henry. Then, piling 
ourselves and baggage into the 
schooner, we went merrily on our 

"Art should be getting back this 
far before long," Bert remarked 
when we had gone several miles. 

"It seems to be getting a habit 
— worrying about these cross 
country hikers," mused Henry. 

"It's the tire I'm worrying 
about right now," laughed Bert. 
I wonder how long it will last." 

As though in answer came the 
old familiar "pop!" 

"Not long, brother," said 
Harold solemnly, as we pulled up 
at the side of the road. 

"Here we are," said Bert once 
more, but this time without the 
grand air. Instead, he draped his 
feet over the steering wheel and 
added, "Good night!" 

"No chance to mend this one?" 
Henry inquired. 

"Nope — no more porous plas- 
ters for weak tires." 

We sat there in the intense 
blackness, broken only by our 
parking lights. Far off sounded 
a mournful wail, and we specu- 
lated as to whether it might be 
coyotes or Indian whoopee. 

"Art's apt to be scared stiff." 
Bert was getting anxious now. 
"I guess I shouldn't have sent him 
alone, but I never dreamed he'd 
have to walk far. There's sure not 
much travel tonight." 

"Shall I start ahead to meet 
him?" Harold thought he hadn't 
walked far enough for one day. 

"Then we'd have to go hunting 
you again. No, he's apt to come 
in a car and then you'd never see 
him. He's got the only flashlight 
in the company, so he's safer out 
there than any of us would be." 

OO we just sat and 
waited. "We ought to try to get 

a nap if we're going to play to- 
morrow," someone suggested. "I 
wonder if we'll ever get there." 
The rest of us wondered, too. 

"I think we'd better take our 
suitcases and strike out. These 
flat tires give a darn sight more 
trouble than flat feet would." 
That was my opinion of the situ- 

"It's not you girls who suffer 
from the flat tires. We fellows 
have to do all the dirty work." 

"And we just sit out here in the 
middle of this forsaken country 
and enjoy the scenery." 

But we couldn't enjoy even a 
quarrel — which means that we 
were "some worried." 

"Pipe down, you, I need some 
sleep." Bert was unquestionably 
tired. He had done most of the 
driving since we left Phoenix four 
days before — four days filled with 
flat tires. The last time we had 
really rested was at Holbrook, two 
night's before. The other nights 
had been spent traveling. How 
good a bed would look now! 

One after the other we dropped 
off to sleep, in spite of the fact 
that we felt we must surely dream 
of Indians and buzzards and 
coyotes hovering around poor Art 
out on the desert somewhere. 

We were wakened from our 
slumbers by the screech of brakes 
as a car stopped beside us. Our 

door was opened and Art's voice 
sang out, 

"Well, of all the sleepy bunches! 
This is a great way to welcome a 
hero home." He turned and called, 
"It's them all right," and the other 
car drove off into the darkness. 

We were all awake now, and 
Art was buried under a deluge 
of questions. "I rode into Ship- 
rock, all right, but," he turned 
accusingly to Bert," any poor sap 
might have known we'd never be 
able to get a Whippet tire there. 
That's just an Indian settlement. 
I had to go on to Farmington." 
He struck an attitude worthy of 
one who was about to impart 
amazing information. "Ninety 
miles little Artie went, just for a 
tire for this boat." 

We were properly impressed. 
"Did you walk far?" 


LT laughed. "No, 
I rode almost all the way there. 
I got the tire, hung it around my 
neck, and started back. I'd gone 
four or five miles when a man 
stopped and asked if I was going 
far. I told him, 'just about ninety 
miles', and he looked at me rather 
queerly, as if he thought it rather 
unusual for a guy with a tire for 
a necktie to start out on a jaunt 
like that. He was going just two 
miles, but that helped. Then I 
had to walk for hours, I guess it 
was, before I got a ride with the 
folks that brought me here. I'd 
have been here sooner, but" — he 
made a wry face — "we had to stop 
to fix a flat tire." 

"They have nothing on us," 
Bert laughed. "So did we." 

In a short time the new tire was 
on, and we settled ourselves once 
more. "I guess we can make it," 
Bert said, looking at his watch. 
"I think our tires are good for the 
rest of this trip." He looked 
around and asked, "Are we here?" 

"We are here," we responded, 
and Harold added, "Let's see how 
soon we can be somewhere else." 

As we started on the long trail 
once again, I turned and looked 
at the two boys who were com- 
paring notes in the back seat. 
"You'd better see if you can't go 
to sleep and get rested. We'll soon 
be up in those gorgeous Colorado 
mountains, and wouldn't it be fun 
to go on a nice, long hike?" 

:-: ;;>"■:■*■ ■.;■:-■ '■":":- , ':-;' : : : 

The Old Stage Road Crossing Skull Valley 

On the Trail 

of the 

Overland Stake 



see a stretch of earth or sky, we 
hear a song or glimpse a passing 
face, and the impressions are so 
strong that they remain forever 
with us. 

I shall not forget the day — -it's 
nearly thirty years ago — when I 
rode to the top of a limestone peak 
on the west side of Rush Valley 
and looked out across the wide 
desert that lay beyond, shimmer- 
ing in the heat waves of an Au- 
gust noon. A page of western 
history lay before me. There were 
Davis Mountain, Indian, the 
Buttes, Granite, Dugway, and blue 
against the western sky, the Deep 
Creek Range, rising above the haze. 
Between these landmarks lay the 
desert floor — endless miles of gray 
shadscale and white alkali. 

Point Lookout lay a couple of 
miles north of me, and from the 
mouth of the canyon emerged a 
white line that stretched away to 
the westward. That was the trail 

of the Overland Stage and the 
Pony Express. 

UnDIMMED by the 
passing years, the old road has 
written its own record of achieve- 
ment across the land it conquered. 
It wakes the imagination. One 
catches himself listening for the 
clatter of wheels on a rocky ridge 
or keeping a wary lookout for 
Indians who might be lying in 
ambush. But it's a generation ago 
since the Lindberghs, the Posts and 
Gattys of 1860 were pitted against 
this wilderness in a most audacious 
attempt to bring California within 
a fortnight's travel of the Mis- 

One stretch of the road ran 
south from Salt Lake City for 
twenty miles to the Point of the 
Mountain. From there it swung 
westward across the desert to the 
Nevada line, a hundred and fifty 
miles away. Stations along this 
road were Joe Dugout's, Camp 

Floyd, Five Mile Pass, Faust. 
Point Lookout, Government 
Wash, Simpson Springs, Riverbed, 
Dugway, Fish Springs, Callao, 
Canyon Station, Deep Creek, and 
many others. Desert towns and 
ranches mark the sites of some of 
these stations, a few more remain 
in ruins, and still others exist only 
in the memories of a few old- 

This stretch of country is al- 
most all a barren wilderness, with 
water at very rare intervals. Back 
in the '60's there were few in- 
habitants other than wandering 
bands of Indians and a few — too 
many — outlaw whites. To give 
the coaches and the pony riders a 
little more than an even break 
against Indians and outlaws, Por- 
ter Rockwell was hired to keep 
things in order. He did it with a 


.ANY stories are told 
about his activities, some good and 

The Improvement Era for September, 1931 


some bad. All are doubtless dis- 
torted by this time. Some chron- 
iclers would have us believe that 
he was a master bandit himself, 
especially gifted in the art of 
double-crossing. Others, and by 
far the majority, picture him as a 
straight - shooting, quick - witted 
forerunner of law and order. The 
fact remains that he was bad medi- 
cine for outlaws. To use his own 
words, he never killed a man — 
"that didn't need killing." 

One story is told of a couple of 
horsethieves who stole some valu- 
able horses and followed the stage 
road westward. Rockwell picked 
up the trail and followed it to 
Riverbed, about a hundred miles 
southwest of Salt Lake. Here, 
single-handed, he captured the 
thieves and made them help drive 
the horses back. As they neared 
Point Lookout, a mountainous 

a long way off. The three people 
concerned are all dead, and there 
were no witnesses. Who can say? 
Those were the days of swift if 
not always sure justice. Any way, 
the well is still there — it has hard- 
ly caved at all — and there is still 

gold bullion from California. His 
plans had been carefully laid and 
his getaway was almost perfect. 
But Rockwell found the trail and 
followed it to a hidden cabin on 
Cherry Creek, about twenty-five 
miles off the road. Then for four 

Ruins of Canyon 
Station at the 
mouth of Overland 
Canyon, Westerr. 

. - . ■tO0 r 

region, the story goes that Rock- 
well found it necessary to shoot 
both men and he dropped the 
bodies down a deep well which 
he had dug for just such purposes. 
Rockwell's enemies say that the 
shooting was not justifiable, and 
that the well could tell a lot of 
incriminating tales if it would. His 
friends say that if he shot the out- 
laws at all, he shot in self defense 
or to prevent their escape. As for 
the well, they say that it was dug 
for water only. The year 1865 is 

room in it for a whole grist of 

horsethieves, bootleggers, gangsters, 
etc. All that is lacking is a few 
Porter Rockwells to bring them in. 
Whatever else may be said of Por- 
ter Rockwell, he was true to his 
friends, and the country needed 
men of his type. 


lNOTHER story 
concerns a lone bandit who held 
up the stage in Point Lookout 
and got away with a fortune in 

days and nights, with almost no 
food or water and with no sleep 
at all, he watched the bandit. Fi- 
nally the latter, feeling sure that 
he had eluded pursuit, went to his 
cache and dug up the gold. In- 
stantly Rockwell "held him up" 
and made him carry the bullion 
back over the mountains toward 
the stage road. Almost dead from 
his four days' vigil, Rockwell took 
the bandit to the winter ranch in 
Skull Valley, left him in charge 
of a ranch hand, and went to 


The Improvement Era for September, 1931 

station was built on a bare, round- 
ed ridge, just where the road drops 
down a long dugway from the 
bench to the bottom of the can- 
yon. There was no cover near, 
but the Indians waited in the bot- 

sleep. During the night the bandit 
got away. He disappeared with- 
out a trace, but his sense of humor 
proved to be his downfall. He 
was an ex-telegraph operator, and 
one day this message was sent 
along the line: 

"I am the man who robbed the 
stage in Lookout. Rockwell got 
the gold from me. See if you can 
get it from him." 

By a process of elimination 
was found that the message had 
been sent from Fort Bridger. 
Rockwell went there, picked up 
the trail again, and finally got 
his man, in Butte, Montana. 

Indians along this 

desert stretch of road are report- 
ed to have been comparatively 
peaceful and even helpful at 
times. However, there are plen- 
ty of cases recorded to show that 
they were bad enough. At Stage 
Hollow, within twenty-five miles 
of Salt Lake City, a party of In- 
dians ambushed a stage coach. It 
was so near to the long established 
settlements that the driver was 
making this leg of the run alone 
and unarmed. The In- 
dians tried to capture 
him alive, but he 
fought them off with 
a monkey - wrench. 
The Indians later told 
that he put up a des- 
perate fight, and that 
they finally had to 
shoot him from a dis- 
tance to prevent his 
killing some of them. 
Farther west, in the 
Fish Springs Moun- 
tains, some soldiers 
who had been sent to 
guard the road killed 
several Indians. Escap- 
ing warriors spread 

the news to the main tribe of torn of a deep draw about two 
Goshutes in Deep Creek Valley, hundred yards to the south. In 
Friends and relatives determined the morning six men came out 

Orin Porter Rockwell 



Rockwell's Well at Point Lookout 

to avenge the death of the slain 
Indians. A party of them rode 
up into the high Deep Creek 
Range. When night came on 
they climbed over the top and 
traveled northward, parallel to the 
mountains, to the mouth of Over- 
land Canyon. Here was located 
an important station that com- 
manded a view of the road from 
the summit, a few miles westward, 
to the Fish Springs Mountains, 
twenty miles to the east. The 

of the bunkhouse. Five went to 
tend the stock, and the other to 
prepare breakfast in a dugout built 
just under the brow of the hill on 
the side away from the Indians. 
The five attendants finished their 
work, looked over the country, but 
saw nothing, and went to the dug- 
out for breakfast, leaving their 
guns in the bunkhouse. The In- 
dians quickly climbed the hill, and 
with a yell charged down on the 
dugout. Four of the men were 

killed where they sat, but two 
broke through the doorway and 
raced for the canyon. These were 
riddled with bullets within fifty 

Indians in Deep 

Creek and Ruby valley caused con- 
siderable trouble. At one time 
they were barely prevented from 
attacking Deep Creek, or Ibapah, 
itself, which was even then quite 
a large farming community. 
The warriors were considerably 
daunted by the fearless, un- 
yielding attitude of Howard 
Egan and a few others of his 
stamp, and finally moved on up 
the valley. A little later clouds 
of smoke were seen to the west- 
ward, and the people knew that 
the station about eight miles 
west of the town, on the Ne- 
vada line, had been attacked. 
While the posse was gathering, 
a cloud of dust appeared along the 
road and the east-bound stage came 
racing in, a passenger guiding the 
six frightened horses. Another 
passenger was crumpled up in the 
forward boot with a bullet in his 
head. The stage had 
been just ready to 
leave when the attack 
occurred. The driver 
had been killed and 
the passenger wounded 
by two of the first 
shots. The other pas- 
senger had grabbed the 
lines and miraculously 
escaped with his 
wounded companion. 

When the posse 
reached the station, 
they found only 
smoking ruins and the 
scalped bodies of four 

The wounded passenger, though 
part of his skull was shot away, 
survived, and after a month or so 
resumed his journey eastward, ap- 
parently as well and strong as ever. 

Howard egan, 

pioneer and pony express rider, had 
many encounters with hostile In- 
dians and in every case either out- 
witted them, out-fought them, or 
by the most audacious display of 
utter fearlessness prevented trouble. 
On one occasion he felt sure that 
the Indians were planning to trap 



The Improvement Era for September, 1931 


him somewhere along his run. He 
rode warily, and just before he 
reached a certain sharp turn in 
Overland Canyon, he sensed dan- 
ger. Checking his horse, he peered 
around the bend and saw a party 
of Indians crouching in the brush, 
waiting for him. If he had come 
down the road at his usual fast 
gallop he would have ridden right 
into their trap. He withdrew a 
little to consider. The canyon 
walls were so steep that he could 
not leave the road. The only 
other canyon he could follow was 
some six miles out of his way, and 
if the Indians were really deter- 
mined to capture him, they would 
no doubt have that guarded also. 
So he pulled out both his pistols, 
drove the spurs into his horse's 
flanks and with a wild yell burst 
around the curve, both guns a- 
roaring. Out of the tail of his 
eye he saw Indians falling over 
each other in a frantic attempt to 
reach shelter. In a moment Egan 
had rounded the next sharp turn 
and was safe again. 

The Indians told him later that 
the ambush was no play party. 
They were out to get his scalp. 
But when he charged around the 
point like a cannon ball, they 
thought a whole army was right 
on them. 

t)UCH tales might be 
recounted almost endlessly. Some 
have been recorded, others still ex- 
ist in the West's great unwritten 
history, and still others have been 
forgotten. Sixty years have passed 
since the last concord coach climbed 
to the top of Lookout and started 
the long trip across the desert. But 
the old road remains, like the 
abandoned stream-bed of a shifting 
river. The shadscale have closed 
in a little, and storms have washed 
out the road in places. At inter- 
vals one comes across other evi- 
dences of the days when the Over- 
land Stage and the Pony Express 
were among the greatest institu- 
tions of the West. Old buildings 
and cedar-post corrals remain at 
the Faust Ranch, sixty miles south- 
west of Salt Lake. Here Dr. 
Faust, a notable character of the 
Great Basin, maintained a large 
ranch and a sort of "division 
point" on the road. This ranch 
was one of Porter Rockwell's head- 
quarters. There is still a tiny 
cemetery here, on a bare hill beside 
the present state highway. Some 

of the forgotten mounds bear mute 
testimony to the swift justice of 
those days, and some represent the 
desert's toll of travelers and set- 

At Simpson Springs, thirty 
miles farther west, part of the old 
rock station house is standing, and 
a few years ago the disabled run- 
ning-gear of a coach stood in a 
corner of the fence. It is gone 
now. Probably some sheepherder 
in distress commandeered it, re- 
conditioned it with twentieth cen- 
tury baling wire, and put it into 
service as an emergency commis- 
sary wagon. 


'NE may still find 
pieces of wire and the stumps of 
poles, relics of the first transconti- 
nental telegraph line. In fact 
every mile of the road fairly teems 
with interest. This is especially 
true on a clear night, with a full 
moon flooding the desert with a 
light almost as bright as that of 
day. The long, straight road lead- 
ing down from Simpson to River- 
bed stands out on such a night 
with startling clearness. Indian 
Mountain, the Buttes, Table and 
Dugway mountains stand at at- 
tention in the weird light. The 
whole desert seems tense, as if 

Mormon Boy C 


When Mortensen goes into the 
1932 Olympic Games as the fav- 
orite to win the all-around title, 
some interesting data on his ability 
as compared to that of Richards 
will have been provided. Mean- 
while Coach Dean Cromwell an- 
ticipates that his star protege will 
be even better in the Olympics 
than he was this season in the 
A. A. U. games. 

T\ URING the school session, 
■ L ^ Mortensen teaches physical 
education and coaches the athletic 
teams of the Riverside Junior col- 
lege in California. Since he finished 
his collegiate career in 1930, Jesse 
has represented the Los Angeles 
Athletic club in its track and bas- 
ketball campaigns. His pleasing 
personality and fine physique at- 
tract the spectators immediately. 
Six feet, two inches in height and 
weighing 185 pounds, he stands 

waiting expectantly for some- 
thing; and one finds himself scan- 
ning earnestly the far-off shadows 
that seem to form and move, and 
then dissolve again, down the 
broad white road toward Riverbed. 

A few days ago I left my car 
and walked along the road a little 
way to take a picture. Suddenly 
I heard a strange noise for such 
surroundings. Looking upward, 
I saw a mail plane droning across 
the sky on its way to the coast. 
It carried letters at five cents each, 
and averaged more than a hundred 
miles an hour, rain or shine, in 
comparative security. I was stand- 
ing on the road where but a few 
short years ago the pony express 
broke all speed records, carrying 
letters at five dollars apiece, doing 
well to average fifteen or sixteen 
miles an hour, in favorable weath- 
er and traveling in anything but 

The Overland Stage and the 
Pony Express were short lived, 
but they performed a priceless ser- 
vice to the West, and to travel 
over the old road now is like pay- 
ing a visit to some great hero of 
the past who still lives, though 
his period of glorious activity is 

rowned World's 

from page 651] 

out as the model American speci- 

At home in Thatcher, Ameri- 
ca's greatest athlete is a leader in 
the male chorus of the Mutual 
Improvement Association and an 
active scout leader. What a break 
for the boy scouts of Thatcher, 
to have a world's champion for 
their chieftain! 

One of Mortensen' s best boost- 
ers is Jesse A. Udall, bishop of 
Thatcher ward, who expresses his 
admiration for his youthful but 
nevertheless famous member in 
these words: 

"The people of Thatcher ward 
and the 'Mormon' folks of Ari- 
zona generally are very proud of 
the athletic accomplishments of 
this young man and of Jesse 
Mortensen, himself. In his mod- 
est, gentlemanly manner he has 
made numerous friends for himself 
and the members of the Church in 
this territory. 


Daughter of Martha 

"What would you like, my dear, 
m a gift from us?" The lady was 
as nice as she was beautiful, 
lovely as her clothes. 


Chapter Two 


INTER found 
the Kirkman family safely estab- 
lished in a one-room log house, 
with a lean-to where the four boys 
slept. The finding of the precious 
five hundred dollars had made the 
home possible. Who was there to 
comment on the width of the floor 
boards, or to cast disparaging re- 
marks about the dirt roof? Who 
else could boast better than four 


pane windows! Gloria felt a 
pardonable pride in this new 
home; a board floor to keep spot- 
lessly scrubbed; a step-stove to 

Margaret Kirkman had never 
seen snow. The first was attract- 
ive and fascinating, but as it gath- 
ered for months, piling against 
the lone window, drifting under 
the floor, clinging to the stove 

wood and chilling her to the mar- 
row, she needed to remember how 
it packed in the mountains and 
made crops possible another year. 
Margaret Kirkman had never done 
a washing. The black Kafir wo- 
men in Africa had been faithful, 
if slow, servants. Now came the 
necessity for home-made soaps, for 
carrying water and heating it, for 
boiling tree barks to make a blue- 

ing, for grating potatoes to make 
starch. The boys had to have 
heavy woolen socks to meet the 
severe cold, and this task fell to 
the nimble-fingered Gloria. She 
soon mastered the technique of 
needles and stitches and with the 
coming of spring she allotted her- 
self a "sock a day." As she herded 
the cows on the nearby hills, her 
fingers automatically guided the 
needles, while her thoughts wan- 
dered through kaleidoscopic glory. 
She wanted to learn, to study, to 
read — there were marvelous tales 
in books — doors that opened to 
new worlds. That famous Jenny 
Lind had been a little girl with a 
voice. Gloria tried her voice on 
•church hymns, but a robin she had 

been watching fled in surprise, and 
the echo was unpleasant. 

Grinding wheat in 

a coffee mill for flour, carding, 
spinning and dyeing wool for the 
weavers, dressing the game which 
her brothers caught, making can- 
dles from tallow, gathering k and 
drying berries for winter — these 
constituted her tasks. She ate her 
coarse foods with a youthful zest, 
although she did not know that 
dandelion greens contained any es- 
sential vitamins. She filled her 
pockets with whole wheat when 
she went to herd, unmindful of 
the calories of energy which it con- 
tained. She only knew that she 

was young and joyous and happy, 
that life in the mountains was 
very busy and very sweet. 

In May of sixty-five came the 
news of the close of the Civil War. 
Margaret Kirkman could not un- 
derstand why negroes should be 
free men. Equal rights with the 
white race! She shuddered, re- 
membering the black Kafirs and 
the atrocities they committed. 

"I'm glad we're far beyond 
them," she rejoiced. 

"I wonder what Confederate 
currency is worth now," grinned 
Stephen, remembering the shark- 
ster who had tried to make the 

Following quickly came the 


The Improvement Era for September, 1931 

news of the death of President 
Lincoln. An actor had become a 
murderer. Gloria, who had been 
practicing elocution with secret 
ambitions as she herded the cows 
and knitted, felt a sudden shame. 
Did all actors turn into murderers? 
The hillside had been her stage; 
the cows her audience, the sego 
lillies her bouquets. It was weeks 
before she resumed rehearsals. 

1 Gloria the daily 
passage of the stage was an im- 
portant event. The red and green 
coaches, the galloping horses, the 
debonair drivers, the armed guards 
waving their Colts, and the fash- 
ionably dressed passengers repre- 
sented a life beyond the hills. She 
had been obliged to watch and 
admire this daily event from the 
hills as she guarded the flock. Oc- 
casionally some thoughtful person 
returned the waved greeting of the 
child. On her fourteenth birthday 
her brother George left his wood- 
cutting and tended the herd while 
Gloria celebrated by "dressing 
up," and visiting the stage station. 
She had a daring hope. If one 
of those marvelous ladies spoke to 
her, she would give her an arrow- 
head. Several perfect ones clinked 
in her pocket as she hurried along. 

1 HE four horse equip- 

page rolled into the station at what 
seemed a terrific speed, the mail 
bags swinging, the horses frothing, 
the driver waving his whip. He 
was a magnificent person in a linen 
duster, with a broad-rimmed hat 
and yellow gloves. He tossed his 
reins to an admiring lackey, who 
hung greedily upon his faintest 
smile. The horses were flecked 
with foam. They had galloped 
ten miles. The guard laid down 
his shot-gun and two revolvers. 
Inside the coach, ladies with their 
hair confined in "water fall" nets, 
shook out their long bustled skirts 
and smoothed down their tight 

Such marvelous colors— blue and 
brown and plum! What wondrous 
ruffles and flounces. The men were 
all bearded and erect, with braid 
decorated coats. Every passenger 
and every detail of the coach repre- 
sented a life which was withheld 
from the eager Gloria, and which 
rshe yearned to experience. 

What possbile treasure might be 

hidden in those dusty mail bags? 
Gold, maybe, from San Francisco. 
How rich these people must be to 
pay two hundred dollars for the 
trip East. How like lightning they 
traveled, taking only sixteen days 
from 'Frisco to St. Louis. 

A kindly-faced woman smiled 
at Gloria. She did not see the 
homespun dress nor the coarse, 
heavy shoes. She saw only hair 
of gold above a beautiful, eager, 
childish face. 

"What a glorious crown!" she 
cried. "Look, Edgar." 

Edgar was engrossed in a book. 
"A desert crown," he smiled ab- 

"Would you like an arrow 
head?" Gloria was surprised at her 
own courage, as she offered a 
choice, perfect flint. 

1 HE lady cried out 
with delight, while the other pas- 
sengers exclaimed and admired. 
The gentleman called Edgar 
reached toward his pocket. 

"I suppose you want money?" 
his voice carried the cynicism of 
the traveler. But Gloria created 
a sensation by shaking her head. 

"What would you like, my 
dear, as a gift from us?" The 
lady was as nice as she was beauti- 
ful, as lovely as her clothes. Gloria 
could only point at the book 
which the man held, for speech 
had deserted her. 

"Why, Edgar, the child wants 
your old book. Milton would be 
gratified to know a child of the 
desert wants his poems." 

The man called Edgar became 
serious. "We will send you books 
from St. Louis, little girl. Books 

Glorfa stood petrified, knowing that 
a telltale streak of smoke from the chimney 
had showed the house was not deserted. 

you can read. Books for girls." 
In her gratitude Gloria put her 
remaining arrow heads into their 

The hostlers came out with 
fresh horses. The driver climbed 
leisurely to his seat, and deigned 
to accept the reins which were 
held up to fcim. A red tassel 
gleamed on the tip of the long 
whip which he cracked dexterous- 
ly over the heads of the impatient 
steeds. Just at that crucial mo- 
ment Stephen Kirkman's slow, 
lumbering oxen pulled in from 
the cross road, dragging some 
hardgotten fire logs. 

Instantly the driver 

became angry that a native had 
dared to cross his path. He cracked 
the long, tasseled whip menacing- 
ly toward Stephen and cried rau- 

"Clar the road! Get out of my 
way with your bull team!" 

A second time the whip came 
dangerously near Stephen, who 
could not increase the speed of his 
oxen. As the driver made ready 
to swing the whip a third time, 
it made a downward sweeps 'ere 
he raised his arm. As though she 
had been trained for the part, 
Gloria displayed a marvelous agil- 
ity. With a sudden upward leap 
she caught the whip in a viselike 
grip and instantly wrenched it 
from the hand of the surprised 
driver. The little pug nose di- 
lated with anger, and deep red 
suffused her face and neck as she 
cried angrily: 

"Don't you dare strike my 

"Give me that whip!" ordered 
the driver. 

Gloria glanced quickly toward 
Stephen, who was now nearly 
over the street. 

"Come and get it," she called 
and tossed the disputed leather in- 
to the dust, as she darted to Ste- 
phen for protection. 

A hostler picked up the whip, 
cleaned it on his own shirt, and 
handed it to the driver. The 
whip cracked, the stage jolted and 
they were off. 

For days Gloria Kirkman was 
the talk of the little village. She 
had dared to thwart a stage driver! 
Why, they could dispense favors 
or punishment as they willed. 
They exerted a real power. Who 
else but the flame-haired Gloria 

The Improvement Era for September, 1931 


would dare to cross a wearer of 
lemon colored gloves? 

/xFTER what seemed 
ages to the eager child, packages 
bearing an enormous postage be- 
gan to arrive. They were addressed 
merely to "The little girl who 
wears a golden crown." Uncle 
Tom's Cabin, McGuffy's Com- 
plete Readers, a book on natural 
science, Ray's Arithmetic, Wil- 
son's Speller and Whittier's 
Poems. Through the long win- 
ter Gloria knitted with fresh 
energy that she might have more 
time for the precious books. She 
taxed the family's supply of can- 
dles as she studied and memorized. 
She spelled down her brothers and 
all the other children of the village. 
The days were too short for the 
things she wanted to learn. 

Spring brought news of the In- 
dian depredations in southern 
Utah. Margaret Kirkman became 
pale and ate even less than usual. 
When the call came for enlistments 
the four Kirkman boys, all tall 
and bronzed and skilled riflemen, 
marched away. Their mother did 
not try to stop them, but gave 
them a copy book for letter paper. 
She bit her lips to restrain emo- 
tion. Gloria trembled as she tried 
to fashion neat bundles of the 
socks she had knit for them. Black 
men — white men — red men; what 
difference did it make when the 
lust to kill filled their hearts? 

"Indians are as wicked as the 
Kafirs," whispered Margaret Kirk- 
man. "Their scalping knives are 
as deadly as the assagais. Only a 
month ago they killed fifteen men 
in a stage station in Colorado." 

The necessity for labor gave 
Gloria no time to lament her 
brothers' absence. She and her 
mother had to plow the field and 
seed the precious wheat. In a short 
time their supply of wood was 
.exhausted, and Gloria had to 
gather oak brush for fuel. The 
early drought made irrigation 
necessary. While she guided the 
cold snow water over the fields 
and milked the one cow and 
guarded the sheep as they foraged, 
Gloria dreamed of better days to 
come. She felt all the emotions 
which had stirred Maud Muller 
when she raked her father's field: 

"A wish that she hardly dared to own 
For something better than she had 

OHE wanted better 
things than her life offered. She 
wanted beauty in all her surround- 
ings. Books were her crying pas- 
sion. A chance to study, to learn, 
to experience all emotions. Her 
youth and vigor and health cried 
out for expression. The arithmetic 
was memorized ; the copy of Whit- 
tier's was worn from usage; the 
McGuffy readers had whetted her 
appetite for broader vistas. Even 
in her youth she had read and 
re-read the Book of Mormon. 

The wheat was beginning to 
head before the boys came back 

"/ need you, Crown of Glory," he 
pleaded. More than his words, Gloria 
noticed his collar had been scorched in 
the ironing. 

stood the real test. The Boer named 
Jacobs sold his farm for fifty times its 
previous value. Another stone was found 
on the Vaal River. Twenty-two carats. 
Diamonds have been found where Gloria 
was born. I enclose a five pound note. 
I will see how quickly I can get rich and 
bring it all to my family in Utah. 
"J. Kirkman." 

1 HERE was no money 
in the letter. As they read this 
startling news, Gloria and her 
mother sat at a rough pine table, 
lighted by a flickering candle. The 
four chairs were home-made, their 
bed was a straw tick on rope slats. 
The fire in the stepstove was ex- 
tinguished to save fuel. Outside, 
the lone cow mooed plaintively 
and a distant coyote howled his 
weird notes. 

"O, Mother," cried Gloria ro- 
mantically, "why didn't we stay? 
Diamonds, on the very spot where 
I was born!" 

"Diamonds are not life — Gloria 
— nor religion. Here we can wor- 
ship in freedom. Here we, at least 
are safe. What behooves riches 
when you are dead? Perhaps your 
father will bring you some dia- 
monds when he comes. If our 
sons return safely, they will be 
all the riches I crave." 

A. FEW days later 
when the entire settlement except 
Gloria had gone to watch "Drill 
Day," she saw a band of Indians 
grounding the dugway which led 
into the village. They were an 
entire tribe — moving. Tent poles, 
pack horses, squaws, papooses, 
painted warriors, flies and dust. 
Gloria had been spinning and sing- 

"Forty threads make a knot — " 
"He spoke to the River Tiber 
that rolls on to the sea;" 

"Ten knots make a skein—" 
"How big was Alexander, Pa, 

from their ninety days' enlistment. 

The letters from her father in far ♦ was he so very high?" 

away Africa were few and irregu- She stopped abruptly, the 

lar, and were always torn and height of King Alexander frozen 

opened upon arrival. He spoke upon her lips. The Indians were 

of coming soon, but always some- stopping. A squaw was coming 

thing intervened. Every letter 
contained a reference to enclosed 
money, but it never reached its 
destination. Now, while his sons 

toward the house, carrying a pa- 
poose. Finally a young Indian 
dismounted and overtook her. 
Gloria rushed to the one window 

were away fighting Indians, John and dropped the muslin curtain. 


wrote of wonderful 

"A marvelous thing has happened to 
our Africa. A Boer's child hunted pretty 
rocks on a river bank. One especially 
attractive proved to be a diamond. It 

She fastened the single door with 
the green drop pole. Then she 
waited and prayed, remembering 
the Indian who had sought to buy 
her on the plains. As the squaw 
[Continued on page 6$2] 


Illustrated by Fielding K. Smith 


HE great church 
was overlaid with a black hush; 
inside were many people praying. 
A Bishop stood with calm fea- 
tures. The majesty of .his office 
was impressed upon the listeners. 
Then he spoke a few words of 
comfort to the bereaved, who lis- 
tened with bared souls. 

"He was a man of God," said 
the Bishop with a glance at the 
flower-enshrouded coffin. "Is there 
more that man can say?" 

Mrs. Merrilla Jackson heard him 
with hard bright eyes. It was her 
brother who was dead. Instead 
of weeping she stared very, very 
hard at the fluttering candles. They 
seemed symbolic of life's frailty. 
A little gust of wind. . . . She 
found herself gripping the psalm 
book with a tightness that paled 
her knuckles to a blue white. 

OHE was a New Eng- 
lander, staunch in her beliefs; firm- 
ly convinced of the superiority of 
her parentage, the best Bostonian 
extract. She was primly conscious 
of the sixty years which hung 
upon her with dignified grace like 
mellow sunlight upon old oak. 
There was something about her 
that suggested oak, well seasoned 
and hardy — almost harsh. Beside 
her sat an only daughter, not duly 
impressed by an uncle's death. 

The organ was playing now. 
Silvery peals of music, the love- 
liest of all pieces ■ — - at least so 
thought Merrilla. Largo! Of all 
the lofty strains from Handel, the 
tender notes from Largo inspired 
her the most. Suddenly the high 
poise of her head lowered; tears 
flowed freely. Strange enough 
Merrilla could not have told 
whether it was from sorrow which 
she was weeping or the voice of 
music throbbing and probing on 
a tender chord in her breast. 

Her daughter sat somber-eyed 
and silent, evidently wishing that 
the service would end. The re- 

lationship between mother and 
daughter was not of complete un- 
derstanding. Mary was too mod- 
ern. She had a will of her own, 
went where she pleased and chose 
har own friends. Not that Mrs. 

Jackson did not 
have implicit faith 
in her daughter. She 
placed too much 
trust in her only 
child. And Mary 
was a dutiful and 
moral child. But — 
she had a mind of 
her own'. . . . 

In the 

high-vaulted draw- 
ing room Merrilla 
was interrupted 
from her reading by 
the sound of laugh- 
ter coming from the 
garden. She frown- 
ed in contemplation 
of the source of that 
laughter, a young 
man who had often 
frequented the old 
mansion. He was a 
nice young man, 
but evidently not 
the right sort for 
Mary to associate 
with. Mrs. Jackson 
often frowned at 
Mary's friends. But 
Mrs. Jackson was 
not always consult- 
ed. She harbored 
growing uneasiness 
about the youngster 
but did not know 
just what she could 
do to remedy the 
source of her irrita- 
tion. The premoni- 
tion of coming dis- 
aster haunted her. 
She hardly knew 
the fellow — in fact 
she knew nothing 
about him, not the 
least thing. All 
she could do was wait. 

It came on a Sunday evening. 
She was reading a book. His 
golden hair and ruddy cheeks faced 
her from the door which was half 
closed behind him. 

The Improvement Era for September, 1931 


"What do you want?" she 
asked with a faint trace of severity. 

He walked toward her, planted 
his feet wide apart, and thrust a 
squared jaw forward. 

"I want your permission to 
marry your daughter," he said. 

1 HERE ensued a silence 
marred only by the quick sound 
of Mrs. Jackson sharply inhaling 
her breath. It had come! 

"I thought that you should 
know," the young man went on 
softly. "You see we are in love. 
I — er — she loves me and we want 
to be married." 

"Well — " she demanded irri- 
tably. "Go on." 

"There isn't any more to say," 
answered the young man with 
astounding simplicity. "Mary 
loves me." 

"Mary loves you?" repeated the 
woman, still somewhat unnerved 
by the information. 

She inspected her visitor more 
closely. She noted a pair of deep 
blue eyes full of boyish unsophis- 
tication which somehow grated 

"puu uti. nerves. juiu) sue xiiuat 

be dreaming. It couldn't be true. 

"Don't you think that this has 
gone far enough?" she smiled. The 
smile was not altogether a pleas- 
ant one; she might have been dis- 
missing an inefficient servant. 

"No ma'am, I don't think it 
has. It is being married that I've 
come to see you about." 

"Where is Mary?" asked the 

The young man nodded to- 
wards the next room. "In there." 

that was threatening to burst forth 
in an avalanche of blame. 

"Mary!" she began. "What is 
the meaning of this? Tell me 
it isn't true. Tell me that this 
young fool is only playing a joke 
upon me." 


.ARY leveled a steady 
glance upon her mother. "It's 
true. I love him — -we love each 
other. Now mother, be a good 
sport and take it standing up." 

"But what do you know about 
him? Who is he? Where did 
he come from? I couldn't permit 
such a thing. No; I won't hear of 
it," Merrilla stormed. 

The young man appeared con- 
fident. "I think that I can an- 
swer all of those questions satis- 
( factorily. My name is John — 
John Burns. I haven't very much 
money but I am making a good 
enough salary to start out jon. 
You see I am an engineer." 

Merrilla was seemingly unim- 
pressed by this disclosure. In fact 
she glowered in a manner most 

"Now — as to where I am from. 
We — -that's easy. I am from 




thought rapidly. Could it be pos- 
sible that she was to lose her 
daughter to this uncultured fel- 
low? She raised her voice. 

"Mary; come here!" 

A head appeared immediately 
from behind a door- — an oaken 
door .massive and imposing. The 
head was golden like that of the 
boy. The smile was frank and 
open — although a little worried. 

"Come here!" 

Following the golden head there 
appeared a slim girlish body that 
was redundant with youthful 

Then Mrs. Jackson looked at 
her daughter reproachfully, which 
for a moment smothered the anger 

lifted her head with surprise 
stamped upon every feature. From 
Utah. That was interesting. Did 
he by any chance know any Mor- 
mons? Of course he did. He 
was probably acquainted with a 
great many. A swift suspicion 
poisoned her mind. 

"I don't think that in this day 
and age that it should make any 
difference," the fellow continued. 
"But- — well, you see, I am a Mor- 
mon — a full fledged one." 

Mrs. Jackson gasped. This was 
too much. At first she thought 
that she was going to faint. After 
a moment of giddy and sickening 
struggle to free herself from this 
dream — it must fbe a dream, ;a 
horrible nightmare — she regained 
a fair measure of her self-control. 
She confronted her daughter with 
fear in her eyes. 

"And you? What are you 
thinking of? Are you out of your 

The girl shook her head grave- 
ly. "No; I think that I know 
full well what I am doing. I 
think that I shall join the Church 
myself. I am quite convinced that 
it is the greatest thing in the 

This revelation caused Mrs. 
Merrilla Jackson to feel like 
screaming. But she only sat down 
and regarded her daughter with a 
vacant stare. Horror reigned 
within her soul. A devastating 
feeling of impotency strangled the 
words that rose to condemn. 


LONELY woman 
stared bitterly at the destiny that 
mocked her. More and more she 
turned to music to seek the com- 
fort of soul that was somehow 
denied her. In distant Utah her 
only daughter had made a home. 
She had even joined a detested 
Church. Estrangement and sep- 
aration had followed. Could she 
ever forget? 

Tonight she was to listen to a 
great symphony orchestra with its 
incomparable leader from across 
the sea, Leiden. He stepped upon 
the stage with an elaborate bow. 
The first strains that swept 
through the great hall were those 
of Largo. Merrilla listened with 
pounding pulse. It came to her 
as a tonic. It swept away the 
barriers to her soul. She found 
herself biting a lower lip in an 
effort to keep back the tears that 
gathered in her eyes. A strange 
fire burned in her heart. 

But after that wonderful dem- 
onstration of harmony she found 
herself again troubled and deso- 
lated. Largo passed like a dream. 


N a gloomy rainy 
Monday in late September Mer- 
[Continued on page 6$ 6] 

"He picked up the poor, water-drenched 
gal as she waz jest comin to." 

Trailer of Evergreen 



Illustrated by Fielding K. Smith 


LD Jasper Thomas's 
dog, I figger, was jest about as 
rightly named "Trailer" as he 
could be, fer he'd trail old Jasper 
all over Evergreen. The lively- 
bird dog and Jasper, it jest seems, 
wuz alius together. You could 
hardly see one without seein' 

Wal, sir, you know, it wuz a 
strange thing that brought Trailer 
to Evergreen. The town of Ever- 
green, where I run a barber shop, 
has a pop'lation of about seven 
hundred souls, and it's a purty 
progressive settlement — I can say 
that without exaggeratin' a bit. 

O' course, you know, business has 
been a bit slow recent months, but 
tourists what stop at my shop to 
get their hair cut and get them- 
selves slicked up, tell me that it's 
that-a-way all over the nation. 
There ain't a paper published 
around here but we know what 
goes on 'cause Evergreen is right 
on the transcontinental highway 
and it's the county seat of Elk 
County, too. I've seed the tour- 
ists get out their maps when they 
stop here at Evergreen and ask 
someone standin' by if this wuz 
Evergreen, but they ain't long a 
findin* out fer shore, 'cause jest 

after they turn the bend, they see 
the court house and they know 
that this is the county seat. Old 
Eph Harwood wuz asked that so 
many times that he has the an- 
swer afore they ask the question. 
Eph is so everlastin'ly hard of 
hearin' that he couldn't hear what 
they said anyhow. 

MOST of the people 
here is farmers. We've a cannin' 
plant and durin' the season some 
strangers are put to work. And 
then, too, Jabez Smith and his four 
sons run a dairy close to town that 

The Improvement Era for September, 1931 


hires five men stiddy and a few 
more when business conditions 
make it worth his while. Conrad 
Olson moved here from Minnesota 
four years back and started a 

critter all huddled up and seemin' 
to be waitin' for his master to 
come back and pick him up. When 
the dog spied Jasper, he walked 
up to him delighted-like and old 

butcher shop and he has done well Jasper patted his soft, flossy coat 
from the very start. Matilda and they wuz friends right away. 
Beckman has a good millinery Kind-hearted old Jasper took the 

'stablishment, which her Aunt 
Selina handed down to her, and 
George Benson, son of old Abra- 
ham, who had a lot of learnin' 
in Kansas City, runs the drug store. 
The post office ain't very busy 
now, so Rube Kane takes care of 
it his'elf. Hi Carter used to be 

homeless dog over to Conrad's 
meat market and saw to it that 
he had a square meal. 

There wuzn't nobody could 
separate them two — except, it wuz 
Mary Catherine, old Jasper's 
daughter. I don't know how it 
wuz, unless she inherited it from 

a blacksmith but a few years back her dad, but Mary Catherine liked 

he turned auto mechanic. Bein' 
on the highway, Hi picks up lots 
of money from them as has their 
autos go splutterfuss. In fact, I 
think Hi is about as prosperous 
a citizen as lives in Evergreen. 

Wal, gettin' back to the dog. 
'Bout the only way I could 'count 
fer his bein' here wuz that he 
must uv fell off a car passin* 

all kinds of shootin', and I guess 
Trailer liked her for that reason. 

ULD Jasper had sent 
Mary Catherine to Kansas City to 
get some learnin' but she wuz a 
lot different to most of them col- 
lege gals she mixed with there. 
She took after Jasper a lot; had 
through Evergreen, and I 'found his mischievous brown eyes. When 
that I wuz right. I'll tell you she laughed, and she wuz alius 
how it happened. laughin,' you could shore see old 

Jasper's laugh in her. She wuz 

Osort o' slender, had auburnish hair 
NE of them army and wuz the purtiest gal in Ever- 
•officers, a Lieutenant Jackson, wuz green. Leastways I alius thought 

a goin' through here with his dog 
a sittin' on the, runnin' board of 
his car, and jest as he turned the 
bend to the left, the dog jest 
keeled off. 

I heerd that this officer wuz 

so. She shore looked right smart 
when she was all decked out in 
her huntin' clothes. Ever since 
she wuz a little tot, Jasper took 
her with him a shootin' ducks, 
and the kid, she jest got to love it. 

she organized the first gal's rifle 
and pistol team at school and 
ever'body kinda liked her tom-boy- 
ish ways. 

She alius came home fer two 
weeks at Christmas time to be with 
her folks and to get in on the duck 
shootin' on the lake. So this cer- 
tain season she came to Evergreen 
about two weeks afore Christmas 
and wuz goin' out to the lake 
about as often as the duck club 
would let her. O' course, ever'- 
time she'd go, Trailer went along 
with her and retrieved her shoot. 
Jasper couldn't alius go, 'cause he 
was justice of the peace and town 
marshal and his business some- 
times kep' him from it. But you 
couldn't keep the dog from goin' 
with the gal. 

Wal, sir, you know there wuz 
two of them army officers came 
down from Fort Leavenworth, 
havin' heerd that there wuz some 
shootin' a goin' on hereabouts, 
and, say, one of them wuz Lieu- 
tenant Jackson. He looked fine, 
too, all slicked up in his uniform. 
They figgered that the justice of 
the peace knowed how they could 
get in on the shoot, and so they 
called on Jasper. Wal, o' course, 
Jasper told 'em you had to be a 
member of the gun club afore you 
could shoot, but bein' secretary of 
the club he could give 'em guest 
privilege and so he fixed them up 

transferred from a post in Wy- The other gals 'round here used 

•omin' to Fort Leavenworth, up to say that she wuz a torn-boy, 

in the north end of the state. They but she wuz shore there on gettin' 
say that while the young feller 


wuz in Wyomin' he up and 
bought this dog from some 
breeder who gave him some 
fancy papers attestin' that he 
wuz a purebred and this dog, 
he shore did look like one, fer 
I never seed a better Irish Wa- 
ter Spaniel in these parts, and 
I have seed a lot of 'em 'cause 
these city sports come to the 
Evergreen Gun Club fer duck 
shootin' on the lake when the 
season is on, and bring some 
purty slick dogs along with 
them to retrieve the ducks, y^ 
This here dog, Trailer, had a \|: 
light smart head, full of curls, 
with long ears and a liver-col- 
ored coat that shone like sixty. 
Wal, sir, you know Jasper 
wuz on his way to his office 
in the court house, one freezin' 
cold November mornin' when 
he run across the poor little 

her limit of ducks. 

When she went away to school, 

"Trailer of Evergreen' 

ASPER'S wife wuz 
dead, but recent years the Widder 
Clark had boarded him. O' course, 
Jasper kep' house the best way he 
could when his daughter wuz 
away, but the Widder Clark, 
she wuz kinda sweet on him. 
She mended his socks and such- 
like, and she alius knowed the 
best way to cook ducks — like 
his wife had done. 

Wal, Jasper up and invited 
the officers to shoot the next 
mornin', which was two days 
afore Christmas, with his 
daughter Mary Catherine and 

It jest seemed that when 
Lieutenant Jackson first seed 
Mary Catherine he couldn't 
help but take a likin' to her, 
but the funny part of it wuz 
that the dog had somethin' 
to do with bringin' 'em to- 
gether and I'll tell you how it 


The Improvement Era for September, 1931 

Mind you, the lieutenant never 
knowed where he lost Trailer, but 
when they wuz all ready to start 
in the mornin', Mary Catherine 
called Trailer and what do you 
think happened. Trailer made a 
bee line right straight to Lieuten- 
ant Jackson, jumped up on him 
and barked as if he wuz tickled to 
death. He hadn't f ergot his old 
master. Then Jasper 'splained to 
the officer how he had found the 
dog and taken care of him ever 
since. O' course, the Lieutenant 
wuz glad to see his old dog, but 
natchurly said that he wuz goin' 
to leave him fer Jasper and Mary 
Catherine, 'cause he figgered the 
dog rightly belonged to them. 

1 HEY all went to the 
Widder Clark's fer breakfast. She 
had her house all slicked up with 
Christmas decorations, such as hol- 
ly and bells a hangin' all over. 
The widder alius liked to make a 
show 'round Christmas time. We 
all liked her. She had a big heart 
— social-like — and ever'body wuz 
welcome to her house, 

Wal, they piled their guns, de- 
coys and such-like into Lieutenant 
Jackson's sedan. Jasper had bor- 
ried two more dogs. They drove 
out to the lake, Mary Catherine a 
sittin' in the front seat 'cause the 
officer had invited her to. 

It ain't but 'bout four miles to 
the lake and if the road ain't got 
too much snow on it or ain't been 
frozen, you can make it in 'bout 
fifteen minutes. 

The blinds out there on the lake 
are 'bout two blocks 'part from 
one another. Tullies were put 
'round the pits so all they had to 
do wuz to put out their decoys 
and wait fer the ducks. Mary 
Catherine took the blind she wuz 
most used to at the far end; Lieu- 
tenant Jackson, he wuz next to her 
and then Jasper and the other army 

Wal, sir, every one was gettin' 
a good shoot, but fer some reason, 
Mary Catherine wuzn't lucky, so 
she figgered she'd better move over 
to 'nother blind. She wuz walk- 
ing along to the next one, when 
all of a sudden- — blooey! She fell 
into an old sink box that wuz 
jest coated with water and when 
she fell, she hit her right knee and 
her forehead so hard that it 
knocked her unconscious. 

Now, that dog, Trailer, he wuz 
right close by her and he seed her 

perdicament. As fast as the little 
critter could, he run to Lieutenant 
Jackson, jest a barkin' fer all he 
wuz worth. 

1 HE officer jest couldn't 
Jigger what in tarnation wuz the 
matter, but when the dog jumped 
up and grabbed his arm and run 
the same way he came, why then 
he knowed that he meant fer him 
to foller. So he run full speed 
to where Mary Catherine lay, the 
dog a leadin' him all the way. 

He picked up the pore, water- 
drenched gal as she wuz jest comin' 
to, and rushed her to his sedan. 
She wuz nearly froze when she 
got there, but he wrapped the 
blankets they brought with them 
'round her and speeded up his 
car, fast as he could to the Widder 
Clark's house. 

The widder lost no time and 
purty soon she had some of her 
own dry clothes on Mary Cather- 
ine, put her to bed, and dressed 

her wounds. They called old Doc' 
Sprague but the gal, she wuz all 
right, 'cept she wuz exposed to 
the cold so much that there wuz 
danger of somethin' goin' wrong 
afterward. The widder kep' her 
in bed the next day and that night 
she set up and ever-body made it 
seem like Christmas Eve fer her, 
'specially the lieutenant. He was 
a talented chap. He played the 
widder's organ fer her and after 
supper the carol singers serenaded 
them and they had a right nice 

Wal, o' course, the next day, 
Christmas, the lieutenant he jest 
up and proposed to Mary Cather- 
ine and he hadn't finished an- 
nouncin' it at dinner, afore old 
Jasper got up and told 'em that 
he and the widder had decided to 
get married, too. 

So, we alius figgered hereabouts 
that the lieutenant got two Christ- 
mas gifts by comin' to Evergreen 
to shoot — Mary Catherine and his 
old dog. 

Covered Wa^on Days 

[Continued from page 653] 

golden spike at Promontory, Utah. 
Stirring music and miniature trains 
bearing small passengers, made this 
scene distinctly impressive. 

any public place where their spirits 
might hover it would be here. 

The impressive services, presided 
over by H. J. Plumhof, were 
participated in by- men of various 
T^HE final episode of the pageant creeds, all joining in sincere praise 
represented our modern ideals, of the stalwart band of brave - 

the last scene opening with a dance 
by Miss Aida Broadbent, symbol- 
izing the future of Utah. At the 
close of the dance Miss Pioneer 
and her attendants advanced to the 
center of the stage, followed by 
soldiers bearing flags, and finally 
by bands, marching on to the field 
where all joined with the chorus 
in singing "The Star Spangled 

No one who was there and felt 
the spirit of those dauntless heroes 
will ever forget the picture of that 
finale. The martial music, the fly- 
ing flags, the brilliant costumes 
and fireworks, all combined to 
make an impression that will en- 
dure as long as the memory of 
the pioneers. 

Divine services concluded the 
week of festivities. It was fitting 
that they should be held in the 
Tabernacle, although they were 
non-sectarian. This building and 
its great organ were planned and 
built by pioneers and if there were 

hearted men and women who es- 
tablished this commonwealth. 
How little the latter imagined that 
some day thousands of people 
would gather undisturbed to honor 
them and their deeds! 

CUCH celebrations as this are 
capable of an incalculable 
amount of good. Among out- 
siders they arouse intense interest 
in the history of our state and 
awake tremendous sympathy in 
the tragic circumstances which 
made this valley such a haven for 
those harassed wanderers. 

Most important of all, however, 
is the result gained among our 
own membership. No descendant 
of the pioneers could witness a 
demonstration of their struggles or 
hear tales of their hardships with- 
out thrilling with a determination 
to carry on the ideals for which 
they paid so high a price. 

"Dream, O Youth! Dream 
nobly, dream manfully. . . ." 

— R. J. C. 




on a 




Speaking of preaching 
The best sermon I ever preached 
In my life 

Was a sermon on a watermelon. • . 
Honest ... no fooling . . . 

It was 'long about 
the middle of July. 
I'd been in Germany a whole year. 
I got to thinking about home and 
And about how I used to go out 
in the melon patch 
And pick out a big green fellow 
that plunked just right, 
And break it over my knee; 
And then take out the heart and 
eat it, 

And then pick out another — a 
nice, big juicy one — ■ 
And another 
Until I was so full 
I could have busted from bliss . . . 
And, like I say, 
I got to thinking about it 
And talking about it 
Until the members in the branch 

Thought I had water — I mean 
watermelon on the brain. 
Finally one of the good old broth- 
ers said to me 

"The only place I know of to get 
Is in Budapest." 
"Well," I said, 
"Just how far is Budapest?" 
"Oh," he said, "only a couple of 
countries away." 

"Pretty far to go for a couple of 
watermelons," I said. 

1 ES, you're right. 
But I'll tell you what — 
My wife and I know a lady . . . 

And her husband sails a boat 

Back and forth down the Danube 


From here to Budapest . . . 

If you want to 

We'll go with you to the dock 


To see if we can't get him to bring 

you one of those blamed things 

You don't seem to think you can 

go on living without." 

So next morning 

We went down to the docks 

And met the lady and her husband. 

He sort of chuckled to himself 

when we told him what we 


But he said, "Sure, 

I'll bring you back a couple of 

dozen, if you'd like." 

1 HEN we talked awhile to his 

About the weather and what not 
And all the time 
She was smoking cigarettes 
So fast I couldn't tell when she 
left off one 
And started another. 
So I said to the good old brother 
I'm afraid she wouldn't make a 
very good "Mormon." 
"No," he said, "I'm afraid not. 
She smokes from twenty-five to 
thirty a day." 
And then we left. 

Next night 

We went down to the dock again 
And watched the boats come in 
And we talked to the man's wife, 
And she said, "Say, 
Who are you anyway"? 
And I said, "Why lady, 
We're missionaries." 
'That's funny,' 'she said, 
"I thought you were. 

What do you believe?" 

I was thinking more about those 

Than I was about preaching a 

And I blurted out pretty blunt- 
like, I guess, 
"O, we believe in God, 
And we believe men will be like 
him someday 
If they work hard enough 
And that means they have to have 
good minds — 

And so we believe in study and 
travel . . . 
And good bodies — 
And that means we believe in 
eating good food 

And taking exercise, and not dis- 

And not smoking or drinking, or 
doing things like that." 
And when I said that 
She looked at me mighty funny- 

And I was glad about that time 
to see the boats come in. . . . 

Well, we got our watermelons 
And I'll swear I never tasted any 
so good. 

Next morning when we went to 


All the members had a good laugh 

over us. . . 

But I didn't care much. 

I was too busy thinking about 

that lady. 

Because there she was sitting on 

the back row 

Drinking in every word we had to 


YV HEN the meeting was over 
She came up 

[Continued on page 687] 


The Improvement Era for September, 1931 

Greatness in Men 

[Continued from page 642] 

haps we meet them and do not Alexander of Macedon, Columbus 

recognize them. For a man to die and others who were men of for- 

a_ pigmy who might have been a tunate fame — men made greatly 

giant seems a tragedy. Great events famous by achievements, 
bring forth great men. When Fort The historian's test of greatness 

Sumpter was fired upon U. S. is not what a man accumulates for 

Grant was keeping books in a 
leather store for $75.00 per month. 
His generalship was not discovered 

himself, not what he builds up 
that will tumble down after him, 
not what forces he commands by 

until the great war was well under which to ravage the face of the 

way and the greatness of his heart earth and scourge men; but rather 

was not discovered until he reached did he make the world better, did 

Appomatox Court House where he he start men thinking along new 

displayed a nobility and a mag- and constructive lines? Any ac- 

nanimity toward General Lee that cepted standard will lead all men 

challenged the admiration of all ultimately to Jesus of Nazareth as 

his countrymen. the expression of exalted and per- 

George Washington might have fected manhood and the measure 

remained a modest but provincial of a11 men ' s S reatness 1S determined 

gentleman had not a combination b ^ t ! ie nearness of their a PPro a ch 

of circumstances brought out the to Him. 

strength and nobility of his char- „, TTTC . . , , a . , 

acter and revealed his matchless T HIS , 1S ? Iea , rly T and ^tively 
leadership. set f° rt h by Larned m this 

T ■ t ■ i_/ 1 , estimate of the Master: 

Lincoln might have remained 

undiscovered had not the tragedy 
of a terrible war revealed the 
strength and sweetness of his char- 
acter and the clearness and capacity 
of his thinking. 

Lastly, great motives and pur- 
poses should be the inspiration for 
great endeavor. 

"The acknowledged great poets 
are the poets who have exercised 
a surpassing idealism of mind upon 
subjects that are fully worthy of 
their powers, to ends that make 
the most of their gifts." 

"Whether we look upon Jesus as a 
purely human figure, or as God incarnate, 
we are generally of one mind in acknowl- 
edging that the conceivable man without 
blemish is represented in his life. If we 
accept him as the type of a perfected hu- 
manity, we can entertain no ideal of hu- 
man greatness which mutilates that type. 
This does not imply an excessive rating 
of moral attributes for these attributes in 
Jesus were only proportioned to others as 
they ought to be in every man of ac- 
knowledged greatness. By habit of 
thought we associate him so exclusively 
with emotions of religion and ideals of 
moral purity that we are apt to lose sight 
of his perfections in every other attribute 
of mind. 

"Jesus exhibits to us, not merely the 
celestial spirit and the transcendent purity 
which have seemed to be divine, but he 
shows us every endowment of humanity 
at its best. If his parables and discourses 
had come to us with no mark of ascribed 
divinity on their authorship, I am sure 
we should have given them the highest 
of all places in the precious literature of 
the world. What other poet has joined 
imagination to reason in forms so per- 
fect, with effects so simple, so powerful, 
so beautiful, to ends so exalted, as Jesus. 
in the parables by which he taught? From 
what other philosophy of life has man- 
kind received so much light, so much lead- 
ing, so much help, as from these parables 
and from the sayings of the Master, and 
from his answers to the questioning of 
followers and foes? What other words 
that letters have preserved for us are so 
compact with meaning, yet so simple in 
the utterance, so straight to their purpose, 
so entirely without waste? It is only a 
slight record that we have, of a few pas- 
sages in the brief life of the great teacher 
- — notes of what fell on few occasions 
from his lips — repeated in four forms, 
with little variations and possibly all from 
one source. If we throw these four gos- 
pels into one, canceling the repetitions, 
we may have all that we know of the talk 
of Jesus in a little printed pamphlet. * * 
What a wonderful bit of literature it is! 
Not as revelation, but as literature, there 
is nothing else so small in the mountain- 
heaps of our books that holds nearly so 
much; nothing else so un-erring in 
thought, so pure in feeling, so rich in 
imagination, so perfect in the beauty of 
simple speech. 

"Intellectually, then, as well as morally, 
our ideal of a perfected humanity is ful- 
filled in Jesus. Nor was he less com- 
plete on that side of his human nature 
which gave its dauntless energy to the 
great mission he performed. Calmly, pa- 
tiently, with no faltering, no fear, no 
passion, he went straight on to the end 
of what he had to do, exemplifying the 
perfection of energy, the perfection of 
courage, the perfection of will."* 

*Study of Greatness in Men. 

TF dominating the lives of many 
x men of acknowledged capacity 
had been a spirit of righteousness 
they would be given places of 
honor in the gallery of the great. 

If Washington had yielded to the 
importunities of some of his com- 
patriots to become the military 
dictator of America his glorious 
career would have been irreparably 
blemished. If Alexander of Mace- 
don, Augustus Cassar, Hernando 
Cortez, Napoleon Bonaparte and 
others had likewise been animated 
by lofty and unselfish motives 
they would have merited places 
among the men of exalted fame. 

The measure of man's greatness 
cannot be determined by the things 
he does. Gutenberg's contribu- 
tion to printing required no very 
great genius but the consequences 
were tremendous. And so with 


[Continued from page 640] 

TTHE coming of the "Mormon" of unsurpassed courage, but with 

1 Pioneers into the Salt Lake tender hearts where acts of mercy 

valley, and the colonization policy were required, as was often the 

which sent them into Idaho, Ne- case. I have seen them face danger 

vada, Arizona and other adjacent with the courage of Spartans, and 

states was not a thing of chance, perform acts of mercy with the 

They were not a body of aimless gentleness of women. Profoundly 

wanderers, going without purpose, religious, they held in reverential 

they knew not whither. They respect the religion of others. 

were a company of intelligent, ed- They were not egotists whose 

ucated men and women, principal- v } s i on was con fined to their own 

ly of New England extraction, 
thoroughly organized, the peers of 
any of their time, going to a des- 

restricted environment. All they 
asked was to be left to their own 
faith and occupation, leaving 

tination which had been carefully ot h ers to worship as they chose. 

decided upon, for the accomplish 
ment of a divine ideal. 

They were men of few words, 
these tillers of the soil and silent 
riders of the hills and plains, men 

They were not Pharisees who 
magnified the faults of others, 
while blind to their own imper- 
fections, but men who, acknowl- 
edging their own weakness, spread 

The Improvement Era for September ', 1931 


the mantle of charity over those 
of their fellows. They were just 
brave plain-spoken men, who wor- 
shiped God and served their fel- 
low man. 

'T'HESE men were my teachers, 
A the guardians of my youth. 
They taught me faith in a living 
God, and service to him; that 
he is the same good heavenly 
Father that he has ever been, to 
bless and direct those who put 
their trust in him. They taught 
me loyalty to my country, and 
obedience to its laws. They taught 

me, both by precept and example, 
that I must defraud no man, 
though the thing may be small. 
They taught me the fundamentals 
of integrity, industry, and econo- 
my, truths as fundamental today 
as they were in the beginning of 
time, and they will remain so 
throughout eternity. 

This is the heritage which the 
"Mormon" Pioneers bequeathed 
to me, and all others who would 
receive their teaching. From the 
depths of my soul I thank and 
bless them for that which they 
gave to me. 

Word of Wisdom Exhibit 

[Continued from page 649] 

there is no conflict between true 
science and true religion. These 
two sources of truth have ever 
been equally regarded by Latter- 
day Saints, for which reasons no 
rift has ever entered this Church 
over the alleged incompatibility of 
man's research and discovery and 
the revealed Word of God. The 
harmonious truths taught in this 
exhibit demonstrated more clearly 
than ever, that any real truth dis- 
covered by man will sustain, and 
never contravene the truth as re- 
vealed by the Almighty, 

During the exhibit, thousands 
of pamphlets were distributed 
which drive this point home: 
"Science and the Word of Wis- 
dom" is a splendid little leaflet 
by Dr. L. Weston Oaks, of the 
B. Y. U. It caused its many 
readers to marvel at the forth- 
coming of the Word of Wisdom, 
and the subsequent discoveries of 
the physicist and the chemist which 
unreservedly endorse its truth. 

TTLE appeal of this educational 
■*• undertaking went far beyond 
the pale of the Church. A large 
percentage of the thousands of vis- 
itors were non-"Mormons," and 
they gave unstinted praise to the 
quality of the thing they saw, and 
many were directly converted to 
the Word of Wisdom. 

An interesting side-light on the 
affair was the fact that a non- 
"Mormon" minister, residing and 
ministering in Salt Lake City, af- 
ter himself visiting the display, 
openly and enthusiastically urged 

his entire congregation to see it. 
Another gentleman, rather skep- 
tical by nature, wandered into the 
display and rather boasted that 
he had been an addicted smoker, 
but that it had never hurt him a 
bit. When he saw the apparatus 
for psychological and physiologi- 
cal experimentation, he challenged 
the guide to show him that he had 
been injured in any way by the 
habits of his life. 

In compliance with his wish, 
he was taken through the various 
tests and experiments with a young 
M Man, picked at random from 
others present, so that comparative 
scores might be taken. The non- 
smoker was given the disadvantage 
of being first at each of the various 
tests, so that his companion had 
the added advantage of having 
observed each test before he was 
given it. They went together 
through the whole of the experi- 
ments, and their results were care- 
fully scored and tabulated. When 
they were through it was found 
that the habitual abstainer had a 
50% higher score than the other. 
The latter was amazed at the re- 
sults, and said he had never dream- 
ed that he had been hampering 
himself as the experiments showed 
he had done; and further that he 
would forthwith cease to be a user 
of tobacco. And interesting to 
know is that some time after the 
end of the exhibit, he told one 
of those who had helped give him 
the tests that his resolve had been 
no idle gesture, but that he had 
indeed quit using tobacco at that 

time, and was firmly determined 
not to resume its use. 

'T'HIS example is unusual because 
■*• of the complete change of atti- 
tude of the gentleman involved, 
but there were numerous cases of 
men and boys who threw away 
their tobacco after seeing the dis- 
play, and credited their conversion 
to the things they had seen and 

These results were most grati- 
fying, quite naturally, to those 
who had given the idea of such an 
exhibit its fulfillment by their in- 
telligent and thoroughly efficient 
work. Its consequent good can 
of course not be measured, (di- 
rectly or exactly, but its whole- 
some and uplifting influence has 
already spread into the homes and 
communities whence its visitors 
came, and is there bearing fruit. 

The counsel and promise of the 
Lord were emphasized, who said 
that this Word of Wisdom was 
not a hard taskmaster for which 
facts its disobedience might be ex- 
cused; but on the contrary that it 
is "Adapted to the capacity of the 
weak and the weakest of all Saints, 
who are or can be called Saints;" 
and given, as he further says, "For 
a principle with promise," that 
promise being; "And all Saints 
who remember to keep and do 
these sayings, walking in obedi- 
ence to the commandments, shall 
receive health in their navel, and 
marrow to their bones: and shall 
find wisdom and great treasures 
of knowledge even hidden treas- 
ures; and shall run and not be 
weary, and shall walk and not 
faint. And I, the Lord give unto 
them a promise, that the destroy- 
ing angel shall pass by them, as 
the children of Israel, and not 
slay them." 

It is of course always regret- 
table that the number of people 
who can see such an exhibit is 
essentially limited. In this case, 
however, the information used is 
available to any ward, stake, or 
branch of the Church, and the ex- 
hibit might well and profitably be 
reproduced, on a smaller scale, in 
the various parts of the Church, 
where it would unquestionably re- 
sult in the blessing of all those 
whom it reached. 

Glancing, Through 

Summaries of Outstanding, Magazine Articles" 


The Art of Hitch-Hiking 

(New Republic for July 31, 1931) 

WITH summer there has come 
again that peculiar Ameri- 
can phenomenon — the 
hitch-hiker, who yearly rides when- 
ever he wants to go, in spite of auto 
club warnings to members, state laws 
against begging rides, and tourists' 
tales of hold-ups. 

A good hiker can average three 
hundred miles a day in Western Amer- 
ica and about two hundred and fifty 
in the East, providing he stays on the 
main highways and keeps out of big 
cities. This is better time than the 
tourist driver can make, for the driver 
becomes weary, and also is forced to 
stop for repairs and supplies, while 
the hitch-hiker can leave at the first 
sign of delay and seek a new car. 
These travelers become expert in the 
art of making selections, letting slow- 
ly-driven trucks and traveling sales- 
men who must make frequent stops 
pass them by. They wait for a fast 
machine which can cover more ground 
in less time. 

The essential equipment for such 
hiking is simple, being a razor, tooth- 
brush, soap and clean clothing, for 
the hitch-hiker who gets invitations 
to ride is the clean and shaven one. 
Bathing in bath-tubs may not be easy, 
but swimming is, and the wise hiker 
makes use of every opportunity for 
this, knowing full well that a grimy 
and bearded walker looks tough, and 
the passing motorist will be fearful 
to pick him up, lest he either rob 
him or leave vermin in the car. 

A large pack is not a helpful thing, 
for it gives the impression that one 
is out on purpose to hike, and not 
walking from necessity. A small suit- 
case is better, for it seems to more easi- 
ly open the hearts of drivers, and is 
quite adequate to meet the space needs 
required for towels, shoe-polish, cloth- 
ing, etc. A good-sized book is ex- 
cellent, for it disarms suspicion. Gun- 
men are not noted for carrying books, 
and the driving public seems inclined 
to trust a man who reads. 

In choosing automobiles, those 
with solitary drivers are best, for 

*Used by permission of publishers. 

such cars generally travel faster, and 
such drivers are often glad of com- 
pany. The sort of driver who is 
willing to give lifts need not be sig- 
nalled madly — a mere turn of the 
hikers' head and an expectant look 
on his face is enough, and the driver 
feels that his was the idea. A car 
driven by a woman is no car for a 
hitch-hiker, for it will often get into 
minor difficulties, if not serious acci- 
dents. Week-end traveling is not satis- 
factory, for entire families are out on 
vacation rides, and cars are full. Sun- 
day is an almost hopeless day for 
getting rides. 

A coast-to-coast trip after this fash- 
ion can be made in less than two 
weeks, with luck, and at a cost of 
under $20. This of course necessi- 
tates sleeping out of doors in good 
weather, but this is not unpleasant, 
for an accelerated pace just before 
lying down practically assures im- 
mediate and deep sleep, and in case 
it is cold, most roads are flanked with 
fields in which plenty of sticks for 
fuel are to be found. Old railroad 
ties make splendid fires, for they hold 
hot coals until almost morning. Sleep- 
ing out on the ground is a truly 
refreshing experience, and a person 
will be surprized at the new life in 
his veins the morning after. 

Cooking utensils, blankets or any 
unnecessarily heavy impedimenta de- 
creases the fun of hiking, and lessens 

the chances of getting a ride, for 
baggage frequently is a decided incon- 
venience, and the very appearance of 
bulkiness will discourage a driver. 

On the desert, never carry water. 
Put a couple of lemons in your pocket 
if you will, 'but remember that no 
car will pass you up on the heat of 
a desert road if you are obviously 
without water. The hardest-boiled 
driver will enjoy saving your life when 
he discovers you to be so ignorant 
and innocent as to start out over a 
sun-baked desert trail without a drink! 

The Good and Bad in 
American Education 

(Current History foe July, 1931) 

THE statement of a foreign visitor 
to the effect that there are in 
America the poorest schools and the 
best is quite true, for we have still 
prevalent totally inadequate, isolated, 
unsupervised country schools, and the 
ill-manned institutions of higher 
learning whlich lack proper library 
and laboratory facilities; and on the 
other hand, we have well-developed 
rural schools, progressive experimental 
schools, well-managed and magnifi- 
cently housed high-schools and some 
splendid colleges with excellent facul- 
ties and great opportunities for train- 

In this welter of differing types of 
institutions, variety and vagary have 
often been mistaken for progress, but 
real progress in our educational sys- 
tem has been all too sporadic and 
individual. Horace Mann in Massa- 
chusetts, Bilbo in Mississippi, Eliot 
in Harvard, Gilman at Johns Hop- 
kins, Van Hise in WisJconsiin and 
Russel in Teachers' College, has each 
put his mark upon the one institution, 
and thence on many, for students, 
going into other schools, have carried 
into them the influence of these men. 

In the last few decades, something 
has happened to the American educa- 
tional world which had to happen 
because of the tremendous increase in 
the mass of pupil material. Efficiency 
had to be developed to meet the situa- 
tion, and so educational institutions 
were forced to adjust or fail, and 
adjust they did, in matters of budgets 
and housing, curricula and administra- 

The Improvement Era for September, 1931 


tion. And the fact that there is a 
heavy mortality rate among the cheap 
and tawdry institutions, which, 
though inadequate, have been given 
the privilege of wasting four precious 
years of the lives of young men and 
women, is hopeful. 

The real criteria of educational pro- 
gress pertains to the vital forces — 
teacher and student. The rest, the 
mechanical parts, are important only 
as they provide for and facilitate the 
study and analysis and ,application 
of the principles of the good life. 

In considering faculties and their 
equipment for their part in education, 
there are half a dozen items which 
indicate progress. First is the fact 
that in spite of their specialization, 
they are becoming more and more 
conscious of their responsibilities as 
a professional group. They have 
been forced out of their ruts and are 
studying the values of what they are 
doing. That self-searching which is 
the constant inward light of every 
individual teaidheir has been (turned 
on them collectively, on every angle 
of what the school as an institution 
is doing. The spirit of inquiry is 
creeping into the problems and new 
social situation of the day, and such 
a spirit is more effective and productive 
of good than an order from the Presi- 

Next, teaching and research have 
taken on new dignity and found 
greater opportunities because of en- 
dowed educational foundations which 
have provided financial support for 
programs in educational research. 
Benefiting by them have been such 
fields as the pre-school child, art edu- 
cation, public health and other stan- 
dards. They have provided scholar- 
ships which have given opportunities 
for training to the rare creative mind, 
in art, letters and the sciences. 

Another factor is the growing 
strength of nationally associated 
schools, where a consideration of ad- 
ministrative problems goes hand in 
hand with those of teaching and schol- 
arship. They have been of great value 
in leveling standards, for the equal 
protection of public, teacher and stu- 
dent. There have also developed the 
beginning of the great educational 
field of the next quarter century — 
adult education. 

Colleges are not created for facul- 
ties, but for students. What of them? 
First, there are too many of them 
who enter without seriousness, with 
no other aim than the regular four 
years of fun, with only such study as is 
absolutely necessary. The social waste 
in providing college education for 
those who should never have one is 
matched only by the need that pro- 
vision be made for the 25 % of capa- 
ble high-school graduates who cannot 
go to college because of poverty. 
Given, however, present conditions, 
what are we doing to adapt education 

to the needs of the qualified student? 
Many things more or less experimental 
and novel, and a few things truly 
basic. Most of the latter, so far, have 
emanated more or less directly from 
four men — Charles W. Eliot, who 
laid great stress on the student and 
his individual interests and abilities; 
Woodrow Wilson, who sought to es- 
tablish between teacher and student 
more inspiring relationships; William 
James and G. Stanley Hall, who un- 
derstood the need to recognize in- 
dividual differences. 

One of the really worthwhile edu- 
cational experiments is one which at- 
tempts to make the first two years of 
a four-year course in college broadly 
cultural, and generally preparatory by 
offering courses on different levels for 
freshmen and sophomores in the fields 
of social sciences, biological science, 
physical science and the humanities. 
After 3 months, the student desig- 
nates one field as his particular choice 
for intensive study, and all his work 
along this line is carefully watched, 
tested and evaluated. If one does not 
make sufficient progress here, he 
changes to another, until the work 
to which he is best suited is found. 
From there on he goes forward rapid- 
ly and with benefit. 

The variety and vigor of such ex- 
perimentation is encouraging and in- 
finitely more promising than the for- 
mer deadly inertia which was a part 
of school programs. The same meth- 
ods will not work in all schools, and 
for this reason constant thought and 
study must go on. Certain colleges 
are now becoming important for their 
various accomplishments in different 
fields, and others are fast gaining 

Tbjg one thing to be emphasized in 
connection with all of them is that 
what they do in a specific way should 
not be imitated, but that others might 
well try to imitate their spirit of in- 
quiry, their methods in bringing about 
unity of executives and faculty. Thus 
they will better discharge their obliga- 
ti6n to students. 

The Joys of Pessimism 

(Forum for July, 1931) 

THERE is in the United States a 
prejudice towards optimism — -the 
Keep Smiling, Boost, Don't Knock, 
The Sky's the Limit, Watch My 
Smoke, For he's a Jolly Good Fel- 
low, There's a silver lining 'neath the 
Dark Cloud Shining, Pack up your 
Troubles in your Old Kit Bag sort of 
optimism. The optimist, in public 
fancy, is genial and plump, has a 
bright eye and a merry laugh while 
the pessimist is gloomy, lean, dyspep- 
tic and given to insomnia. 

The point of this article, written by 
a pessimist who is free from indiges- 
tion and inclined to stoutness, is to 
clear up a few popular misconceptions 
regarding pessimism. He has been 
happily married for 15 years (he is 
especially pessimistic about marriage 
in general) and has a couple of de- 
lightful children who do not in the 
least seem to feel that their father 
is a kill-joy. He does not look sourly 
into the faces of all he meets, for they 
have tired, drawn faces — the faces of 
optimists who are worn out with the 
effort of hurrying to find something 
splendid and jolly which can turn 
out beautifully. If they were pessi- 
mists they would think that there is 
nothing in particular worth chasing, 
and would stop running about in 
search of it and would have time to sit 
down and relax and have time to 
smile instead of just talking about 
smiling. (In the very young, per- 
petual smiling denotes colic; in the 
very old, senility; in between, it is an 
excellent device for showing off good 
white teeth.) 

The deeply-rooted idea that a pes- 
simist's life is steeped in gloom, where- 
as an optimist's is one grand sweet 
song, is patently absurd. When a 
man who looks only at the bright side 
of things fails to find a bright side, 
he must be wretched, while the fellow 
who scarcely believes there is a bright 
side receives an agreeable surprise every 
time he stumbles onto one. 

The mere contemplation of all that 
goes into the life of an optimist is 
enough to make one shudder. To 
be looking always for something to 
turn up, for the pot of gold at the 
end of the rainbow, for good times 
ahead and something just around the 
corner, for Lady Luck and the divinity 
that shapes our ends, for ships to come 
in — how can anyone be an optimist 
and survive the strain? 

But take your confirmed pessimist! 
He does not look for anything in life 
except the daily joy of living. A 
cloud is not the excuse for a silver 
lining, but for rain and probable 
pneumonia. Believing that there is no 
intelligence or courtesy among motor- 
ists, he watches red lights and then 
[Continued on page 689] 

The Tapestry of Life 

By Elsie C. Carroll 

UPON a web of plain brown years 
I weave Life's Tapestry. 
The tints and shades that make the woof 
Are gifts from God to me. 

Within the heap from which I choose 
The strands to fit my loom 
Are threads of fine-spun silk and wool; 
Some dyed in flowers' bloom. 

Within the heap there also lie 

Some wefts of somber hue; 

And I must choose the lights and shades 

As my shuttle passes through. 

At first I choose but strands of green 
And velvet rosy hues. 
With here and there a purple thread, 
And touches of soft blues. 

And then I hunt the colors warm — 
Bright crimsons, orange, gold, 
With silver sheens and russet glows. 
I shun thre&ds dark or cold. 

But as I weave my pattern in 
With all these colors bright, 
I cannot make my figures clear; 
The picture is not right. 

Reluctantly I turn again 
To the heap of mixed thread. 
I see the somber shades I need, 
But I pick them out with dread. 

surely, surely such dark hues 
Will spoil the lovely thing 

1 want to weave within my loom. 
I wa,nt eternal spring. 

With all its gladdening light and love, 
Its songs and laughter gay. 
I do not want its beauty spoiled 
With threads of black and grey. 

But though I try and try again, 
My picture will not grow 
Into the beauteous strength I want 
Until my shuttles throw 

Across the web some threads so dark 
I shudder at their gloom. 
When Io! the picture is complete 
That rest within my loom. 

It took the strands of darkness 
To show to God and me 
Howmuch of strength and brightness 
Was in my tapestry. 

Dry Farms 

Vesta P. Crawford 

PATCHED old they are, the sombre 
Hollows of light in the swales. 
Blazing spots where the desert has waked 
In shimmering gilt on the dales! 


By Linda S. Fletcher 
Dry-Land Wheat Fields 

TJILLS touched to matchless gold 
Xx By Midas-hand of industry. 

The Canadian Rockies 

Duchesses in green velvet, 
Regally greeting the traveler, 
Wearing tiaras of star-gems, 
Drawing around portly shoulders 
The softness of pearly cloud- ermine. 

The Deseret Dancer 

Phantom dancer of the waste-land, 
Twirling scarves of misty rose-hue 
'Gainst the golden veiled sky-blue, 
At the Sultan Sun's command — 

Noiselessly she comes, advancing 
Dervish-like, whirling so madly 
In abandon, giving gladly 
All she has unto her dancing. 

Rising now to the star-spaces, 
Treading on, she eager presses 
Nearer to her lord's caresses — 
Bids farewell to desert places. 

On the Hills 

By Guy E. Coleman 

ARTIST Autumn tints the vale of 
And he spreads his rich oblations on the 

Tender tints of cloud-toned sunset add 

their splendor, 
Mystic music rises softly from the rills. 

There is wonder in the wea,ve of oak and 

Carpeting the steeps in patterns deft, di- 

There is beauty blushing in the crimsoned 

Nature-tapestries of exquisite design. 

There's a charm of lavish color in wild 

Magic when the mellow moon of harvest 

And my soul is stirred to tenderest de- 

When I hear the Voice Eternal through 
the pines. 

There is harvest far more beautiful, O 

Than the golden hoard which all your 

storehouse fills; 
There is more gold, O miner of the 

There is grandeur, glory, God there on 

the hills. 

Ashes for Beauty 

By Beatrice K. Ekman 

WHEN down the mountain trails Oc- 
tober's breeze 
Sweeps through the trees with chill 
upon her breath; 
The slender aspen and the maple leaves 
Change their green hue for a more 
radiant dress. 
Their yesterdays of summer time are done 
And nights of biting frost their verdure 
They drop into the ages leaf by leaf 
To rest in dust through the relentless 
May not a memory of the nesting birds 
That mated in their cool and sheltering 
And twittered at the dawn . . . content 
their rest? 
May not a. memory of the harvest moon 
Remain with them that gave their beauty's 
When they quiescent lie in somberness? 

A Sonnet to Nature 

By Florence D. Cummings 

OF late I stood where Nature reigned 
The handiwork of God's creative plan; 
Where towered crags, and mighty torrents 

Where brightest colors, like an artist's 

Of gorgeous vibrant tapestry, did seem 
To paint in purples, reds, and golden tan, 
With subtle blending never reached by man 
Each terraced hillside and each bank of 


I marveled. And my very soul did thrill 
With wondering awe, and straightway was 

To worshiping. It almost seemed I 

In ecstasy, so did my being fill 
With sweetest pain, that held me speech- 
less, still, 
In tribute to the Master Artist's skill. 


By Christie Lund 

WHEN I have ceased to miss you, dear, 
I know 
I shall be glad, oh, very, very glad 
For all the happy hours we have had — 
Those priceless hours e'er you chose to go, 
When life was rich and wonderful; and 

I shall cling on almost religiously 
To all my precious husks of memory: 
Each little thing that made me love you 

I shall be glad because I have grown wise, 
And I have learned that happiness is rare 
And some souls never find it. In their 

Will always be the dream of one to care 
As you have cared for me so brief a 

time . . . 
Though now this lone Gethsemane is 


^^ — SHI 



'©Tie JOY of 

EVERY human being comes in- 
to this world "blindfold," that 
is, without remembrance of the 
past or knowledge of the future. But 
he has within him a number of great 
urges or hungers that become the driv- 
ing forces of his life; hunger for food, 
hunger for knowledge, hunger for 
companionship, etc. The first hunger 
that manifests itself, and the greatest 
of all the driving forces, is the hunger 
for food. We must eat or we die. 
The soul has taken an earthly body 
for the purpose of making a journey 
through this world and if this period 
of living is to be a happy, successful 
one, the body must grow, thrive and 
be able to perform certain functions — 
so that hunger for food might be 
called "the soul's will to live." Phys- 
ical living should be a joyous thing. 
Browning in his poem "Saul" has 
David, the young shepherd boy, sing 
of man's keen sense of earthly pleas- 
ures — '"How good is man's life, the 
mere living!" and he enumerates some 
of the joys. 

"A plunge in a pool's living water * * 

And the meal, the rich dates yellowed 
over with gold dust divine, 

And the locust-flesh steeped in the 
pitcher * * * 

And the sleep in the dried river-chan- 
nel, where bulrushes tell 

That the water was wont to go war- 
bling so softly and well." 

But if physical joys are to last 
through youth to old age,, there are 
certain laws which must be obeyed. 
The hunger for food if rightly satis- 
fied, gives health and strength, but 
woe to him who indulges in "for- 
bidden fruits" or allows hunger to 
become an all-consuming passion! The 
"eat, laugh and be merry for to- 
morrow we die" attitude of mind 
soon brings its reward of disease, mis- 
ery and death. We should eat, laugh 
and be merry, but with the idea of 
living and doing, not dying. 

Family Meals 

FAMILY meals, especially the eve- 
ning meal, should be a ceremony 
at which each member of the family 
appears, properly dressed, washed and 
combed, and takes a part. The table 
should be correctly laid, the food well 
cooked and nicely served, and then 
tasted and enjoyed. Some members 
of the family, hurrying away to an 

appointment, swallow their meal with- 
out thought of how it tastes or smells. 
Foods have an aroma or bouquet, and 
the sense of smell calls out digestive 
juices that play an important part in 
the eating and digesting of food. Then, 
too, the state of mind while eating 
has much to do with digestion. All 
discord and unpleasantness should be 
banished from family meals, nor 
should there be a discussion of foods 
and diets — there can be an apprecia- 
tion of food without a discussion of 
what is good for you and what is 
bad. Too much attention should not 
be paid to the amount that the small 
boy or girl may, or may not eat. 
Children love attention, and if Johnny 
learns that by refusing to eat certain 
foods he can become the center of 
attention he often unconsciously takes 
the pose of not caring to eat. It 
should be taken for granted that each 
member of the family will eat at least 
a small portion of everything that 
is served — a child's eating habits are 
entirely a matter of training. Very 
small children are not given the food 
that is generally served at an evening 
meal, and if brought to the table are 
likely to spend their time making a 
disturbance, so that whenever possible 
they should be made comfortable else- 
where. There cannot be much relax- 
ation for the head of the house if, 
while he carves the roast, he must 
keep his foot on the rung of Junior's 
high chair, lest he rock over, and 
mother cannot be a very interesting 
dinner companion if she must spend 
a part of her time restraining the 
small daughter, who wishes to put 
her plate on her head — -z sacred rite 
all children between the age of one 
and two years insist on performing. 

The surroundings in which we eat 
and the manner in which we eat are 

quite as important as what we eat. 
Satisfying the hunger for food is a 
many-sided problem and the house- 
wife who considers it a project rather 
than a task will find the preparation 
of food interesting work, and will 
take pleasure in serving meals so at- 
tractively that all members of the 
family will realize "the joy of eat- 

Autumn Fruits 

HTHE fruit-canning season is now 
*■ _ in full swing. The Autumn 
fruits, sweet and juicy, fresh from 
the trees, should be preserved in sev- 
eral different ways and stored for 
the winter. One of the things to 
beware of is over cooking — long cook- 
ing destroys the flavor. There is 
little danger of bottled fruit spoiling 
if the bottles and tops are thoroughly 
heated, and care is taken to fill the 
bottles full, eliminate air bubbles and 
seal tight. 

Use a heavy cooking vessel; cover 
to retain steam, and cook fruit at 
moderate temperature. All fruit 
should be peeled with a silver knife, 
as a steel knife will discolor it. Peel 
only a small quantity at a time, and 
cook at once, as standing causes fruit 
to darken. 


n ANNED pears are a delightful all- 
^ year-round food. They can be 
served for breakfast or as a dessert, 
and they make the best fruit salad 
known. If one has plenty of jars, 

they are nice canned whole. Peel 

leaving stem on — then take core out 
at blossom end. Cook in tightly 
covered vessel, and place in jars with- 
out crowding. 

Served as a salad the centers may be 
filled with various things, chopped 
walnuts and raisins- — chopped ripe 
olives mixed with salad dressing — 
minced pineapple and Brazil nuts- — 
or most any kind of cheese — water- 
cress cut fine and mixed with mayon- 
naise makes a delicious filling — and 
watercress may also be used as a gar- 

Whole Pears 

Pears may be cooked whole, with- 
out removing the core, but the stem 
should be retained. If red pepper- 
mint candy is used in place of sugar, 
it gives a lovely color, and a flavor 
that makes them a nice addition to 
the meat course, especially roast lamb 
or ham. 

[Continued on page 690] 


All Metchizedek Priesthood material is prepared under the direction of the Council ot the Fwelve. 
i<^V and all Aaronic Priesthood material is prepare I under the direction of the Prestdma Htshopnt S~\ 

The Lord Says — Tobacco is not good for man, but for bruises and sick cattle. 

How a Newsboy Felt About It 

T LIKE to recall my experience with 
-L a little newsboy. 

My wife and I stood at the west 
door of the Hotel Utah, in the com- 
pany of a most distinguished American 
and his wife. 

We were talking about the Gospel 
of Christ as taught by the Latter-day 
Saints. Somebody said something 
about the Priesthood, and mention 
was made of the fact that in this 
Church all men may make themselves 
worthy to hold the Priesthood. Some 
one remarked — perhaps my wife — 
that even the boys after a certain age 
hold the Priesthood. 

Just then a little lad came along 
the sidewalk, calling out the afternoon 
paper — "Deseret News! Deseret 

On the spur of the moment I said: 
"Perhaps that little boy holds the 

I called him to me. He thought I 
was a tourist about to buy a paper. 

I said: "Are you a 'Mormon,' my 

He straightened up, put his heels 
together, looked me in the eye, and 
said: I am. 

"Do you hold the Priesthood?" 

"Yes, sir; I hold the Priesthood." 
He gave the salute of the Scout. "I 
am a deacon." 

There was the fearlessness of the 
child, the pride of his possession, 
though under- 
standing only 
as a child, 
dimly, the 
meaning, the 
spirit and the 
vastness of this 
latter - day 
cause. - — Dr. 
John A. Widt- 

Honor and 

Why would 
you con- 
sider it a great- 
er honor to be 
trusted with 
a commission 
from the Pres- 
ident of the 
United States 
than from, say, 
the mayor of 
your town? 

The reason does not lie in you at 
all. You are the same in both cases. 
It lies rather in the one from whom 
your commission comes. And the 
difference in those persons would be 
that the authority, the dignity, the 
elevation of office are greater in the 
one case than in the other. 

Apply this to the Priesthood. 

Your calling or commission as a 
deacon, a teacher, or a priest comes 
from God, not from man, however 
great he may be. 

Now, God is the Creator of all 
things. He is all powerful. He is 
worshiped not only by the poor and 
lowly of this earth, but by kings and 
nobles, rulers and philosophers, and 
wise men everywhere. 

This is no doubt the reason the 
psalmist said hundreds of years ago: 

"I had rather be a doorkeeper in 
the house of my God than to dwell 
in the tents of wickedness." 

What You Do Is jOften Seen 

A SUNDAY or two ago a stranger 
visited one of the Sacrament meet- 
ings in a Salt Lake City ward. He 
was there as a tourist, curious to know 
how the "Mormons" conduct their 
religious worship. 

After the services were over, he com- 
mented on what he had seen and 

"You know, I thought it was won- 
derful that your boys and young men 
take such a prominent part in your 
religious services. 

"Those older boys — priests you call 
them? — how beautifully they read the 
sacramental service! And those smaller 
boys — deacons I think you said they 
were — how quietly and with what 
order and dignity they went about 
their work. 

"I think it is marvelous that boys 
are permitted to conduct any part 
of a religious service. It is so bracing 
to every one. You know, in my 
church there is nothing like that, and 
I do wish there were." 

It was perfectly true that the whole 
service performed by the boys on that 
occasion was beautiful. 

An older man directed everything. 
At his signal the blessing on the bread 
and on the water was given, the dea- 
cons rose and separated, and then re- 
turned and sat down. It was under 
his training also that the deacons had 
kept their arms folded, had marched 
together back to the sacramental table, 
and had then dispersed to their seats 
among the congregation. 

No wonder the visitor had been 

Find This Out 

heard, particularly on what he had P)0 Y ou know the answers to these 
seen, to the local friend who had taken ■*-' questions? 
him there. He said: 

The Susquehanna River 

On whose banks the Aaronic Priesthood was restored to Joseph Smith 
and Oliver Co wdery by John the Baptist. 

( 1 ) Who is the bishop of your 

ward? Who 
are his counse- 

(2) Just 
why should 
the bishop 
have charge of 
the Lesser 
Priesthood in 
the ward? 

Why Pay 

"C VERY man 
I— ' of us Is 

facing inevit- 
able and eter- 
nal bankrupt- 
cy, except as 
he invests his 
life and his 
treasure i n 
spiritual; for 
only spiritual 
things can 

The Improvement Era for September, 1931 


abide forever. The only permanent 
values in the world are spiritual values. 
And so our Lord said, "Lay not up 
for yourselves treasures upon earth," 
where you must inevitably give them 
up in a little while, "but lay up for 
yourselves treasures in heaven," where 
you can enjoy them throughout count- 
less millenniums. 

Over and over again in the revela- 
tions we are reminded of our obliga- 
tion to give to him not only our 
substance, but our time and our talents. 
With these commandments go prom- 
ises of rich rewards that are received 
by those who obey, as many of the 
faithful can atttest. 

The systematic giving or paying, 
that the tithe compels is full of bless- 
ings. It cuts out the roots of selfish- 
ness. It nourishes the virtues of 
brotherly love and helpfulness. It 
realizes the privilege of being a co- 
worker with God, and it creates that 
cheerfulness in the giver that makes 
the Lord love him. How wonderful 
that we can endear ourselves to our 
Father in such a simple way! How 
wicked and foolish to neglect to do it. 

The reason why we must pay tithes 
is because the Almighty clearly com- 
mands it and further it is a highly 
spiritual process. It is a recognition 
of the Divine One, to whom the 
tithe is brought and who receives it. 

Multitudes profess to be willing 
to be led by the word of the Lord 
in dealing with their fellow-men, yet 
in this matter of giving, how few 
seem willing to do it. The Bible is 
within the understanding of all, a 
great book of revelation — the people's 
book of revelation. It has revealed 
the people to themselves. A man has 
found himself when he has found his 
relation to the" rest of the universe, 
and here is the book in which those 
relations are set forth. This is the 
revelation of life and peace. One out 
of every six verses of the Bible is a 
warning against some form of covet- 
ousness. When a lawyer asked Jesus, 
"Master, what shall I do to inherit 
eternal life?" He said, "What is writ- 
ten in the law?" Thus Jesus ap- 
pealed to the law, to reveal to the 
lawyer his responsibilities and obliga- 
tions — and the law enjoined tithing. 
God's way of getting substance is 
through the tithe. Christ rests it on 
the sense of duty. He found little 
to commend in the Pharisees, but that 
little He did commend, "Ye pay tithes, 
this ought ye to have done." When 
Jesus says, "Ye ought," the final word 
has been spoken. It is time for argu- 
ment to cease, and obedience to begin. 
If the tithing system has the sanction 
of Jesus, no Christian is honest with 
God until he has given him one-tenth 
of his income. It is the Lord's. There 
is no sacrifice, no self-denial, no "offer- 
ing" on the part of the Christian until 
he has given over and above the tenth. 
The acts of Christ are in the same di- 

rection as his words. How freely he 
gave! He keeps nothing back — from 
the five loaves and two fishes, up to 
his own "life a ransom for many." 

The twin laws that the seventh of 
our time and the tenth of our income 
shall be devoted in a special sense to 
God's service have never been changed. 
Both have their foundation in human 
needs, and both were given for our 
benefit. They are the Lord's, by con- 
tract, in the Lord's partnership with 
the Christian. Both must be rendered 
to him as an acknowledgment of his 
right in the time and money we have 
received from him. Paul lays down 
the rule in I Cor. 16:2: "Upon the 
first day of the week let every one of 
you lay by him in store, as God hath 
prospered him." Only let this prin- 
ciple be observed, that there be a 
stated proportion given out of every 
dollar, whether the income be received 
weekly, monthly, or whether it be 
realized at the end of the year. Prompt- 
ness, indeed, is often a part of econo- 
my. He gives twice who gives prompt- 
ly. Steady support of the Church, 
both with money and service, is better 
than scattered effort. 

The spending of money upon plea- 
sures that are inconsistent with a Chris- 
tian profession is doing untold damage 
to the cause of Christ; and making 
many Church members more lovers of 
the world than lovers of righteous- 

May we be delivered from the snare 
and delusion of supposing we are ex- 
pressing our love to the Lord when 
we give one-sixteenth to him and 
fifteen-sixteenths spent upon ourselves. 
A man put it this way once, "When 
people do that, it is very much as if 
a man should go down to the city 
and buy a five thousand dollar auto- 
mobile and a seventy-five dollar over- 
coat and a ten dollar pair of shoes and 
a fifteen dollar hat for himself and 
then should buy a calico dress for his 

The tithe of one's income to the 
Lord is not a charity, it is one's first 
and most pressing debt — a debt of 
honor. The distinction that the tithe 
is distinctly a debt and not a gift 
should never be lost sight of. You do 
not "give" your banker the interest 
you owe him nor "give" your grocer 
the amount of his bill. Yet neither 
one is more of a debt than the tithe 
we owe to God. To pay a tenth is 
being obedient. This and not gain 
should be our highest motive. Spiritu- 
ally and financially a man has no 
power to make money except as God 
gives it to him. 

The offering back to the Lord, at 
regular intervals of time, of a definite 
portion of what he sends us, expresses 
the gratitude of the heart for mercies 
received, and at the same time is an 
acknowledgmnet of our absolute de- 
pendence upon the Most High. 

It is seldom easy for a man to begin 
to tithe his income. It involves so 
much that it requires a new exercise 
of faith and a little fuller surrender 
to Christ. 

Do you believe the Almighty meant 
what he said about pouring out his 
blessings that there shall not be room 
enough to receive, it? If you do, then 
why not begin to tithe your income 
now? — J. H. Trayner. 

A Promise 


It is refreshing, in this day of doubt 
and depression, to find a ray of hope 
touching our financial affairs. Many are 
in debt, sought by those to whom they 
owe money; perhaps haled into court be- 
cause they cannot pay. 

When the Lord spoke to his children 
in these latter days he said: 

"There is a law, irrevocably decreed 
in heaven before the foundations of this 
world, upon which all blessings are predi- 
cated — 

"And when we obtain any blessing 
from God, it is by obedience to that 
law upon which it is predicated." 

A message of hope was given to debt- 
ors in the Doctrine and Covenants, Sec- 
tion 104, verses 78, 80 and 82: 

"Verily I say unto you, concerning 
your debts — behold it is my will that you 
shall pay all your debts. 

"And it is my will that you shall hum- 
ble yourselves before me, and obtain this 
blessing by your diligence and humility 
and the prayer of faith. 

"And inasmuch as you are diligent and 
humble, and exercise the prayer of faith, 
behold, I will soften the hearts of those 
to whom you are in debt, until I shall 
send means unto you for your deliver- 

"And inasmuch as ye are humble and 
faithful and call upon my name, behold, 
I will give you the victory." 

That was given as a promise. Will 
not observance of the requirement make 
this promise effective today? 

c D\e Challenge 

Words by Ruth M. Fox 




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Executive Department T 

General Offices Y. M. M. I. A. 

47 East South Temple Street 

General Offices Y. L. M. I. A. 

33 Bishop's Building 

General Superintendence* 
Y. M. M. I. A. 

George Albert Smith, 
Richard R. Lyman, 
Melvin J. Ballard, 

Executive Secretary. 

Oscar A. Kirkham 

General Presidency 
Y. L. M. I. A. 

Ruth May Fox, 
Lucy Grant Cannon, 
Clarissa A. Beesley, 

General Secretary: 

Elsie Hogan 

Opportunities in the M. I. A. 

A LIBERAL education with the 
minimum outlay of time and 
means, the finest associations to be 
found anywhere, interesting activities, 
fun, continued cultural and spiritual 
development — that's what it means to 
he an active member in the Mutual 
Improvement Association over a peri- 
od of years. 

Periodically there comes into our 
General Office one of our workers 
from a rural community to voice her 
enthusiastic appreciation of the oppor- 
tunities afforded in this organization. 
Manual studies, music, drama — all of 
them thrill her with their alluring in- 
terest. And she is hut speaking for 
the thousands who could tell of what 
M. I. A. has done for them. Scarcely 
a man of prominence in the Church 
hut has found inspiration for his life's 
work in the M. I. A., scarcely a ma- 
tured woman but owes much of her 
present standing to the high ideals and 
practical training received therein. 

The season of 1931-32 is no excep- 
tion; there is in the program this year 
a wealth of material provided for all, 
so varied and rich in its offering that 
it will meet the needs and desires of 
every individual. 

Executive Department 

TO be an executive in this organiza- 
tion of young people is a rare 
privilege for there is ample opportuni- 
ty to develop latent powers of leader- 
ship. There is real joy in organizing 
and preparing so fine a piece of work 
as the M. I. A. program, in watching 
that program develop and in seeing 
human beings grow under its influence. 
"Well begun is half done" is an old 
but true saying. With this in mind 
executives will make the opening social 
this year, Sept. 8, a more joyous 
event than ever before. Assisted by 
their publicity directors they will see 
to it that every member, young and 
old, is aware of this occasion and is 
given an enthusiastic welcome. They 
will keep high the morale of the en- 
tire corps of officers and leaders so that 

everyone shall be eager to commence 
the season's activities. All arrange- 
ments should be made for the begin- 
ning of regular activity work on Sep- 
tember 15. 

The fact that all Manuals were 
ready so early this season has given 
our officers ample opportunity to in- 
form themselves and obtain a general 
understanding and appreciation of the 
entire program so that they can more 
intelligently supervise and give assist- 

The new Hand Book will be found 
most helpful, giving as it does a com- 
plete picture of the entire program. 
This is especially for the use of presi- 
dents and counselors in charge of 
manual work. Price 50c. General 

The slogan this year presents a 
great ideal for which to strive — phys- 
ical, mental and spiritual health — to 
be achieved through observance of the 
Word of Wisdom. The rallying cry 
has been sounded by the leaders! It 
calls to every loyal M. I. A. member: 
Come let us stand for clean living; 
let us prepare ourselves in body, mind, 
and spirit for the high destiny that 

awaits the children of Zion. Let us 
lift our heads in pride and say, "We 
belong to a group who do not smoke, 
who do not drink liquor, tea or coffee; 
who observe the laws of physical and 
spiritual well being." 

The book for the executive depart- 
ment, "The Life Story of Brigham 
Young," by Susa Young Gates will 
be found intensely interesting, offering 
as it does in this year of pioneer com- 
memoration, vivid pictures of that 
great leader and all those who strug- 
gled with him to build a home for 
us, their descendants. 

Continued opportunity for the de- 
velopment of the spiritual activities 
of the M. I. A., and for public pres- 
entation of the same is offered in the 
Sunday evening joint service. Execu- 
tives will do well to make the most 
of this privilege once each month. 
Suggested programs appear in the Era 
from time to time. The October joint 
session bids fair to be one of unsual 
interest under the title, "Meeting Life 
With a Real Friend." 

See "Era and Publicity" depsrtment 
for announcement. 

Era and Publicity Department 

The Spirit and Mission of the 

TWTLAT does the Gospel mean to 
" us? Has it any place in the 
world? ilf so, what is it? It is a good 
thing for us to think about that oc- 
casionally. What is the distinctive 
mission of the Gospel of the Lord 
Jesus Christ? If we can answer that 
question, I think we can discover what 
the mission of the Improvement Era 
is. Its mission is just as distinctive 
as the Gospel itself. You can buy 
magazines on the market that are better 
in some particulars than the Era. If 
you want to study history, there are 
historical magazines superior to the 

Era; if you want fiction, you can find 
that which, according to modern ideas, 
is higher in quality; if you want stories 
of travel you can find them elsewhere; 
if you want science journals they exist 
on every hand. But we believe the 
Era has a distinctive message that no 
outside magazine can give." 

"The Era is not a simple matter of 
mechanics, a few pages bound together 
with a colored cover and a few symbols 
in ink splattered on by a printer. That 
is only a little part of it. In addition 
to all that we can hold in our hands 
or see with our eyes of makeup and 
form and texture, there is something 
in the magazine that we may well call 
a soul, a spirit, a breathing truth or 
hope of truth upon which its whole 

The Improvement Era for September, 1931 


foundation depends." — Extracts from 
talks given at June Conference. 

Sunday Night Program For 

THE evening meeting on the Fast 
Sunday in October is to be devot- 
ed to the Era, not in a selling way, but 
from the standpoint of content. Pro- 
grams will be outlined and sent by 
mail to Stake Executive officers who 
will in turn send them to ward officers. 
While the Executives, as always, will 
have direct charge of the meeting, it 
is expected that Era and Publicity 
Directors will lend their hearty sup- 
port; inasmuch as the event is in real- 
ity planned as a help to them in the 
approaching Era week in every ward. 
Note especially the new M. I. A. 
song "The Challenge," page C80, to 
be used on the "Era" Sunday night 
joint program. 

— *I^«^»>3lf- 

Keep a-Crammin' 


TF you wish to make a show, 
•*■ Keep a-crammin'. 

Don't take a chance on what you 

Keep a-crammin'. 
'Tain't no use to feel so blue, 
For there's nothin' you can do; 
But just watch for each review, 

And keep a-crammin'. 

When the brain works seem to bust, 

Keep a-crammin'. 
Do not let them mold or rust, 

Keep a-crammin'. 
S'pose your lessons are a bore, 
And your head feels sick and sore, 
There's always room for one thing 
more — ■ 

Keep a-crammin'. 

When your life seems full of doubt, 

Keep a-crammin*. 
If your pa won't help you out, 

Keep a-crammin'. 
Then suppose you died today, 
Why, your folks would up and say: 
"Just take your books down where 
you lay, 

And keep a-crammin'!" 

The name of the author of the above lines 
was not signed to the manuscript, and the 
letter accompanying the poem has been mis- 
laid. If "Schoolgirl" will send her name to 
the Era office the editors will appreciate it. 


HAPPINESS, that magic spring of 
purest liquid life, 
Giving to those who in return give 
charity for strife. 
It only gives to those who give their 
very heart and soul 
To gladden lives that others live, 
for this is Happiness' goal. 

— Orson Rega Card 

coaVMVu n iii¥ s A\crn\vinrY idieipt. 

== Committee ======= 

Oscar A. Kirkham, Clarissa A. Beesley, Chairmen; Emily C. Adams, Vice-Chairman; Heber 
C. Iverson, John H. Taylor, W. O. Robinson, Don Wood, Jos. F. Smith, J. Spencer Cornwall, 
Charlotte Stewart, Elsie T. Brandley, Katie C. Jensen, Evangeline T. Beesley, Ethel S. Anderson 

COMEONE has already pronounced 
*~* the new Manual on Recreational 
Activity and Leisure Time Guidance 
one of the best, if not the best, treatise 
ever prepared on Recreation. Whether 
this be true or not, we are assured 
that our Community Activity Com- 
mittees will agree that a splendid vol- 
ume has come into their hands. 

The first five chapters provide a 
background of information that will 
give to all who study it thoughtfully 
a new vision, a clearer picture of the 
possibilities offered in the great field 
of recreation. They will come from 
its perusal with a new joy in their 
work and an intelligent understanding 
of principles underlying the recreation- 
al program. 

Chanters o and 7 explain fully the 
methods in carrying forward the ac- 
tivity program in the M. I. A. The 

general participation, the Church-wide 
Contests, and the new feature for 
1931-32— -the Music Festival — are 
fully outlined. 

Then follows the major part of the 
book — Chapters 8 to 12, containing a 
wealth of material on Dancing, Drama, 
Music, Speech and Story for use in the 
Tuesday Evening half-hour program. 
Never before has so much fine infor- 
mation on these subjects been gathered 
together in an auxiliary publication. 
It is arranged for convenient handling, 
each subject being divided into twelve 
parts to cover twelve weekly periods. 

The closing chapter is a reference 
book in itself for many types of parties 
and entertainments. 

This manual is especially for the 
use of counselors in charge of activities 
and community activity committees. 


=^ Committee - 

Dr. Arthur L. Beeley and Lucy W. Smith, Chairmen; Dr. Joseph F. Merrill, Dr. Franklin 8. 

Harris, Lewis T. Cannon, Dr. Lyman L. Daines, Ann M. Cannon, Rose 

W. Bennett, Emily H. Hires, Charlotte Stewart 

'"THE program of this Department is 
■^ featured by three activities, (1) 
class-room discussion, (2) project 
work, and (3) recreation and social 

The subject for class discussion the 
coming year will be the Word of 
Wisdom. The discussion will be 
guided by the use of a textbook, en- 
titled How To Live, an authoritative 
but very popular treatment of hygiene, 
accompanied by a specially prepared 
Supplement published by the General 
Boards of Y. M. and Y. L. M. I. A. 

The textbook may be rightly re- 
garded as an amplification of the Word 
of Wisdom. This book might be 
read with great profit and enjoyment 
by every adult member of the Church 
and all others, interpreted in the teach- 
ings of the Word of Wisdom. 

The Supplement adapts the text to 
M. I. A. class discussions, in addition 
to which it gives in detail the Half- 
Hour Recreation Program of the Adult 
Department. The outstanding feature 
of this program is its easy adaptability 
to every ward and will result, no 
doubt, in popularizing the Adult De- 
partment the coming year. 

The Projects will be the same as 

last year, and are also given in the 

The Adult Committee of the Gen- 
eral Boards feels that the program 
presented for the 1931-32 season will 
prove to be the most popular and 
profitable program ever offered by it. 

MAN-POWER may be economiz- 
ed, first by cultivating sound, 
personal habits. "Wherefore will ye 
waste your money for that which is 
not bread," ask the Scriptures. They 
who waste their substance in riotous 
living are wasting more than wealth. 
They are wasting their own vital en- 
ergy, their own man-power. 

Man-power is also economized by 
discovering hidden talent and giving 
it a chance to function. Every vil- 
lage Hampden or mute, inglorious 
Milton is a waste of man-power, the 
more destructive because the world is 
always in desperate need of such tal- 
ent. Any system of supervision or of 
teaching which can discover patent 
genius and make it active is a factor 
in nation building. To discover hid- 
den genius is better than to discover 
a hidden gold mine.- — Dr. Thomas 
Nixon Carver. 


The Improvement Era for September, 1931 

: w\ men department 

===== Committee ===== 

Herbert B. Maw, Chairman; John F. Bowman, Thomas A. Beal, Oscar W. Carlson, Alma Clayton, 
Homer C. Warner, Nicholas G. Morgan, E. E. Ericksen, Jos. F. Smith 

OF interest and value not heretofore 
surpassed is the M Men program 
and course of study for the season of 
1931-32. As in other departments, 
the M Men have outlined for them 
discussions for the class period on 
Tuesday evening, activities for the 
half-hour period following the class, 
and for contests; athletics, debating 
and other speech work, reading-course 
book, and many other interesting and 
stimulating suggestions. 

Gleaner-M Men Program 

AS in other years, this season's pro- 
gram includes occasional meetings 
with the Gleaner Girls, the purpose 
being "for social service, for leader- 
ship and for expression of individualf- 
ty," and objectives being to extend 
desirable acquaintanceship, to form 
self-governing groups, to develop cul- 
ture and refinement, and to direct the 
mind of youth to the deep values of 
the spirit and the beautiful in out- 
ward expression and dress. As a 
basis of discussion in the joint meet- 
ings of the two groups, the new book 
"The Right Thing at all Times" 
has been provided. 

M Men Guide 

FOLLOWING last year's course of 
study, volume 2 of "Choosing 
an Occupation" is offered for the 
current season in the M Men depart- 
ment. The foreword to the Manual 
states that "besides giving information 
and creating active interest in the vari- 
ous vocations here treated, this manual 
is written in such a way as to stimu- 
late active discussion and mutual ex- 
change of ideas among the M Men." 
The vocations discussed are Advertis- 
ing, Agriculture, Banking, Invention, 
The Law, Merchandising, Recreation, 
Surgery, Transportation and Trades. 
Of worth inestimable this winter's 
work should prove to the young men 
who are at the age where the choice 
of a vocation is vital, inasmuch as 
it will affect the rest of their lives. 

Reading Course 

THE department book on the reading 
course is "With Malice Toward 
None," by Morrow, and is highly 
recommended to the young men of the 
Church for study and careful analysis. 




Grace C. Neslen, Chairman, Rachel G. Taylor, Martha G. Smith, Margaret Newman, 

Emily C. Adams 

A FEAST of good things is pro- 
vided for the Gleaners. To their 
meeting on the first Tuesday of each 
month with the M Men, a most at- 
tractive program invites them. Dem- 
onstrations of the delightful sugges- 
tions in their book on etiquette, "The 
Right Thing at all Times," have al- 
ready given pleasure to many through- 
out the Church so that we anticipate 
much fun and much worth while de- 
velopment along this line in these 
groups of active young people. 

"A Brief History of the Church," 
the text for the Gleaners will be "found 
intensely interesting. Every girl will 
delight in hearing again the dramatic 
story of the rise and development of 
the Church, and of the heroic men 
and women who established the great 
commonwealth of the west. 

Tying up closely with the text, 
each Gleaner Girl this year will wish 
to make the gathering of her Treasure 

of Truth a real project. The spirit 
of the Pioneers is hovering over the 
people; "the hearts of the children are 
turning to their fathers;" families are 
gathering in their store of memories 
and compiling their histories. What 
more fitting tribute can each Gleaner 
Girl pay to those who have gone before 
than to make her own collection of 
truth-treasures, bringing together 
stories, poems, songs, pictures of her 
own dear ones, and of others who 
have blazed the way — incidents which 
have stirred her and increased her faith 
through their heart-appeal. 

Just the title, "Singing in the Rain," 
makes us eager to begin the Reading 
Course book for this department. It 
will round out and supplement the 

The complete text for study, "A 
Brief History of the Church," full in- 
formation on the M Men — Gleaner 
program, the project, the book, and 

also the calendar for the year are to 
be found under one cover. The Gleaner 
Manual is nicely bound and altogether 
attractive; it should be a treasured 
possession of each girl. She will want 
to own a copy not only for her use 
this year but for her future reference. 
Gleaner leaders will wish to secure 
this book early so as to make its con- 
tents their own before the beginning 
of the season. Price 50c, at the General 
Office of the Y. L. M. I. A. "The 
Right Thing at All Times" also 50c, 
at the General Office. 

Junior Girls 


HTHE Junior Department, too, offers 
-*- a most attractive program. 

The bright, "American Beauty" 
cover of the Manual beams a welcome 
to all to peep inside and see what 
lovely things are provided for these 
Junior "roses," lovely flowers of the 
M. I. A. Bouquet. 

First appears the text for discussion, 
"Building a Life." Deeply spiritual, 
interspersed with stories and illustra- 
tions, and carrying messages of love 
from the several writers, it cannot but 
appeal to every Junior girl and her 

Then follow six delightful outlines 
for discussion on the Junior Project, 
"My Story — Lest I Forget." The 
very title makes us want to begin to 
write the story of our lives, recalling 
those dear, intimate things of baby- 
hood and childhood which enliven and 
sweeten all our lives. 

"Larry" is the title of the Reading 
Course book and as "Larry" is a real, 
live, interesting boy, he will appeal to 
every Junior Girl. 

The calendar for the year and sug- 
gestions for other activities are in- 
cluded in this Junior Manual which 
sells for 20c at the Y. L. M. J, A. 

'"THERE is now ready a delightfully 
•»• gay, colored cover for these books. 
The girls will be happy to put between 
these lovely cover-sheets of rose the 
pages upon which they have written 
their stories. There is, in addition to 
the cover pages, two sheets for genea- 
logical records — one for the names and 
one for photographs — so that the 
work of arranging ir.aterial will be 
greatly simplified. 

The new Junior song is printed 
on a page the right size to fit into 
"My Story" book. Every Junior 
group will want to learn to sing this 

The price for the cover, with gen- 
ealogical sheets and new Junior Song 
is 20 cents. 

Separately, the cover is 15 cents; 
music 5 cents. 

The Improvement Era for September, 1931 


yANGUARDS scouts idieipt. 

Committee =- — -°=3s=***>Q 

Dr. George E. Hill, Jr., and Charley R. Mabey, Chairmen; Nicholas G. Smith, German E. 
Ellsworth, Le-Roi C. Snow, Ernest P. Horsley 

"M^EW in many respects and of un- 
*-^ usual interest throughout is the 
program for the Vanguard department, 
which takes in the fifteen and sixteen 
year-old boys of the M. I. A. Here- 
tofore a part of the Scout department, 
the older boys are now elevated to a 
more delightful and complete course 
of their own, and the outlines for 
its supervision are published in "The 
Log of the Vanguard Trail," a little 
volume whose very title makes one 
want to read it. The introduction 
sounds the keynote to all that follows: 
"The Log of the Vanguard Trail is 
an attempt to help leaders to under- 
stand boys, to direct those boys into 
a romance of exploration so fascinat- 
ing that they will choose to follow this 
trail not only on Tuesday nights, but 
during their leisure time as well, to 
lead them to discover themselves, their 
interests, their talents, and the fields 
of endeavor in which those talents 

In addition to the month by month 
program, which includes Hiking, 
Archery, Indian-lore, First Aid, Astro- 

nomy, Electricity, Athletics and Ath- 
letic Contests, Angling, Insect Life, 
Camping and Swimming, the Log 
gives Relationship and Organization, 
the Vanguard Institution, Objectives 
and Methods of Leadership, and such 
activity projects as contests, reading 
and the project — Markers for historic 
places. This project is shared by the 

Reading Course 

THE book "Larry," by Foster, is 
the 1931-32 reading course vol- 
ume for Vanguards. It is a collection 
of writings of Larry Foster, written 
with no thought of publication, but 
after his death they were compiled 
and given to the reading public. His 
diary, themes in English, letters to 
his family and his girl, poems, and 
philosophy are gathered together and 
published in a most diverting and 
worth-while fashion, and will doubt- 
less become one of the favorite books 
of every boy who reads it. 

The book for Boy Scouts is "Mod- 
ern Pioneers" by Cohen and Scarlet. 


' XJ " k = Committee ===^=^ 

Sarah R. Cannon, Chairman; Catherine Folsom, Vida F. Clawson, Glenn J. Beeley, Harie C. 

Thomas, Elsie T. Brandley 

NO great changes are included in the 
Bee-Hive program for the season 
about to begin, except the new course 
for the Nymphs — the twelve-year-old 
girls who enter the M. I. A. As al- 
ways, the Spirit of the Hive, the Seven 
Fields of Religion, Home, Health, 
Out-of-Doors, Domestic Art, Business 
and Public Service, and the Guides 
for Study will serve as the foundation 
of discussion and activity, and Bee- 
Keepers will find in the service they 
render the great degree of satisfaction 
and joy which has ever attended this 
branch of M. I. A. work. 

In order to simplify the work in this 
department, there have been eliminated 
the project and reading course book 
of other years. The program for the 
Bee-Hive girls is so comprehensive and 
active that no further need is felt, and 
with conscientious effort and ready 
sympathy, a leader will find herself 
guiding her girls through a stimulating 
and helpful season. 

Twelve Year Old Girl 

HPHE announcement made last year, 
■*■ coming from the First Presidency, 
to the effect that the twelve-year old 
girl was free to attend either Primary 
or the M. I. A. according to the desire 
of herself and her parents, was one 
of great interest, and a few girls of 
that age have joined the M. I. A. 
For leaders of these groups, the General 
committee is providing a course of 
study and activity, which will be 
ready shortly. Watch the next issue 
of the Era for definite announcements 
along this line. 

Mutual Messages 

P\URING the coming season it is 
■*~^ hoped that the messages for the 
Bee-Hive department will be of more 
value to Bee-Keepers than ever before. 
Reports from stakes, suggestions for 
class discussions, activities and cell- 
filling will be included, and explicit 

directions for various forms of hand- 
craft will also be supplied. If you 
have accomplished or discovered in 
your work anything which you feel 
would be of help to others in the same 
field, write a note about it and send 
it in for publication in this column 
of the Messages. What you are doing 
others would like to hear about. 

"Life of the Bee" 

"C OR many years Bee-Hive groups 
have been asked to read Maeter- 
linck's "Life of the Bee," the beauti- 
fully poetic treatise upon which the 
plan of the Bee-Hive organization 
rests. The book is written in rather 
difficult style for girls of Bee-Hive 
age, and many of them have lost some 
of the beauty of it because of their in- 
ability to analyze it. 

For this reason, a review of the im- 
portant points contained in it has 
been prepared by members of the Gen- 
eral Board, and this, published in 
pamphlet style, will furnish the mate- 
rial necessary for use in the lessons on 
the life of the Bee. Girls will enjoy 
reading it and leaders will appreciate 
the simplicity of the arrangements, 
and it is hoped that every Bee-Hive 
girl in the Church will read this brief 

Watch the Bee-Hive section of the 
Mutual Messages in the Era for an- 
nouncement as to price and time of 

■^riT'affiW^d'frAdhAA A i fl i rfrn j T i ft i il Tn d ft (H i . ft i f* .Tfti iff 





















this Month 

September is the opening 
month of the school year at the 
McCune School of Music and 

Enroll now for Private Les- 
sons in piano, voice, violin or 
other instrument; or for Class 
Instruction in Music Theory 

Our attractive Fall Bulletin 
lists subjects, tuition fees, and 
general information. The cou- | 
pon below will bring your copy I 




by return mail. 


School of Music and Art 

200 N. Main 

Salt Lake City 

Please send me your Fall Bulletin. 








The Improvement Era for September, 1931 

When Your 
Home Burns 

There's a certain amount of 
comfort to know that should fire 
destroy your home tonight that 
you are covered by Fire Insur- 

Such insurance will indemnify 
you for the loss incurred and 
allow you to rebuild your home 
without financial hardship. 
It's worth a good deal to have 
this protection in these times. 
See our agent in your town. 



General Agents 

20 South Main Street 
Salt Lake City, Utah 

For Best Results— 



f Property 


include Paints, Enamels and Var- 
nishes for All Decorating Purposes 


61-65 West First South 
Salt Lake City 

Dealers throughout Utah, Southern 
Idaho and Neighboring States 

Facing Life 

[Continued from page 64 6] 

lowliest of men. No man is too 
humble to be kind. And "Where 
Love Is There God Is Also." 


In and through all you do is 
you. Only you can determine how 
fully you may build your own 
attributes into reality. . Nobody 
else smiles just as you do— or talks 
— or thinks — or feels. It's a won- 
derful thought that there is no one 
just like you in all the world. And 
the key to your development is 
persistent practice. If you work 
vigorously each day you will de- 
velop physical strength. If you 
read extensively you will become 
rich in ideas. If you cultivate at 
every turn a sunshiny attitude you 
will come to be known for yout 
genial disposition. You become 
most successful personally as you 
capitalize to the fullest the talents 
which constitute your birthright. 
Your task becomes one of stock 
taking to determine strong and 
weak attributes and of setting up 
a definite program of building for 
yourself the soul estate for which 
The Great Architect has given you 
the blueprints. 

TF you would take stock, it may 
be helpful to have an inventory 

sheet by which to check your 

"goods upon the shelf." 

Two passages in scripture set 

down briefly but wonderfully 

ideals of personal achievement: 

"But the fruit of the Spirit is love, 
joy, peace, longsuffering, gentleness, good- 
ness, faith, 

"Meekness, temperance: against such 
there is no law." — Galatians 5:22-23. 

"And besides this, giving all diligence, 
add to your faith virtue; and to virtue 

"And to knowledge temperance; and to 
temperance patience; and to patience god- 

"And to godliness brotherly kindness; 
and to brotherly kindness charity. 

"For if these things be in you, and 
abound, they make you that ye shall 
neither be barren nor unfruitful in the 
knowledge of our Lord Jesus Christ." 
—II Peter 1:5-8 

A MODERN scholar in the field 
**■ of education has drawn up 
one of the most comprehensive in- 
ventories of desirable and undesir- 
able qualities yet brought together. 
Let yourself "walk by" as this 
list of attributes searches out your 

Positive Qualifications 

1. Open-minded, inquiring, broad. 

2. Accurate, thorough, discerning. 

3. Judicious, balanced, fair. 

4. Original, independent, resourceful. 

5. Decisive, possessing convictions. 

6. Cheerful, joyous, optimistic. 

7. Amiable, friendly, agreeable. 

8. Democratic, broadly sympathetic. 

9. Tolerant, sense of humor, generous. 

10. Kind, courteous, tactful. 

1 1 . Tractable, cooperative, teachable. 

12. Loyal, honorable, dependable. 

13. Executive, forceful, vigorous. 

14. High ideals, worthy, exalted. 

15. Modest, self-sacrificing. 

16. Courageous, daring, firm. 

17. Honest, truthful, frank, sincere. 

18. Patient, calm, equable. 

19. Generous, open-hearted, forgiving. 

20. Responsive, congenial. 

21. Punctual, on schedule, capable. 

22. Methodical, consistent, logical. 

23. Altruistic, given to service. 

24. Refined, alive to beauty, artistic. 

25. Self-controlled, decision, purpose. 

26. Good physical carriage, dignity. 

27. Taste in attire, cleanliness, pride. 

28. Face smiling, voice pleasant. 

29. Physical endurance, vigor, strength. 

30. Spiritual responsiveness, strong. 
3 1 . Prayer life warm, satisfying. 

3 2. Religious certainty, peace, quiet. 

33. Religious, experience expanding. 

34. God a near, inspiring reality. 

35. Power to win others to religion. 
3 6. Interest in Bible and religion. 

37. Religion makes life fuller and richer. 

3 8. Deeply believe great fundamentals. 

39. Increasing triumph over sin. 

40. Religious future hopeful. 

Negative Qualifications 

1 . Narrow, dogmatic, not hungry for 

2. Indefinite, superficial, ,lazy. 

3. Prejudiced, led by likes and dislikes. 

4. Dependent, imitative, subservient. 

5. Uncertain, wavering, undecided. 

6. Gloomy, morose, pessimistic, bitter. 

7. Repellant, unsociable, disagreeable. 

8. Snobbish, self-centered, exclusive. 

9. Opinionated, dogmatic, intolerant. 

10. Cruel, rude, untactful. 

11. Stubborn, not able to work with 

12. Disloyal, uncertain, lacking dependa- 

13. Uncertain, weak, not capable. 

14. Low standards, base, contemptible. 

15. Egotistical, vain, autocratic. 

16. Overcautious, weak, vacillating. 

The Improvement Era for September, 1931 


17. Low standards of honor and truth. 

18. Irritable, excitable, moody. 

19. Stingy, selfish, resentful. 

20. Cold, repulsive, uninviting. 

21. Tardy, usually behind-hand, inca- 

22. Haphazard, desultory, inconsistent. 

23. Indifferent, not socially minded. 

24. Coarse, lacking aesthetic quality. 

25. Suggestible, easily led, uncertain. 

26. Lack of poise, ill posture, no grace. 

27. Careless in dress, frumpy, no pride. 

28. Somber expression, voice unpleasant. 

29. Quickly tired, weak, sluggish. 

30. Spiritually weak, inconstant, uncer- 

31. Prayer cold, formal, little comfort. 
3 2. Conflict, strain, uncertainty. 

33. Spiritual life static or losing force. 

34. God distant, unreal, hard of ap- 

35. Influence little or negative. 

3 6. Little concern for religion and Bible 

37. Religion felt as a limitation. 

38. Lacking in foundations for faith. 

39. Too frequent falling before tempta- 

40. Religious growth uncertain. 

— George Herbert Betts, "How to Teach 

If the objectives listed under 
this recipe of Success seem difficult 
of attainment remember that when 
an ideal is fully realized it ceases 
to be an ideal. Know with Brown- 

"A man's reach should exceed 
his grasp or what's a heaven for." 

A Sermon on 

a Watermelon 

[Continued from page 67 1] 

And asked me some questions — ■ 
Pointed ones, and no dodging al- 

And when I answered them 
She looked me right straight in 
the eye 

And said "I've been waiting all 
my life 

To hear somebody say that. 
I'd like to be baptized." 

I told her 

I thought she'd better wait awhile 
Until she was real sure. 
She said she was sure all right 
But she'd wait if we wanted her to. 
So she started reading all the books 
she could get hold of 
And began taking lessons in Eng- 
lish and Spanish 

And studying almost everything. 

Besides from that day on 

She never so much as looked at a 


Well, we baptized her after a few 

We had some good old brothers 

in the branch 

Who had been trying to stop 

smoking for over a year 

And couldn't quite get up the 

nerve. . . . 

But when that happened 

They stopped too. 

I never saw anything like it 

Never hope to again 

That's why I maintain 

That the best sermon I ever 

preached in my life 

Was a sermon on a watermelon. 

— «K^g2§*i* 

THIS Communicating of a man to 
his friends works two contrary 
effects, for it redoubleth joys, and cut- 
teth griefs in halves; for there is no 
man that imparteth his joys to his 
friend but he enjoyeth the more; and 
no man that imparteth his griefs to 
his friend, but he grieveth the less. 

■ — Bacon's Essays 


Gymnasium — 

Every student at our school is 
entitled to Gym privileges at 
the Deseret Gym. 

* am t 

— — >H ||S—w|»— n«—^H ih^^»ii»iii||i.i n t.— »|M— HI— »j|^^»fl— IH^™ II-—— II it^^lt I 

j Walton 

The exclusive privilege (ex- 
cepting State University) to 
teach Walton Accounting has 
been awarded the L. D. S. 
Business College. 


The Wonder Machine Short- 
hand is taught at the L. D. S. 
Business College — ask for a 


ii— ii— ii— — ii— it— ii-^ii iri— ii ■■■■■ic^ii^— tr«^»n^— i* < i»— ^h^— ti ■ .|j^— n— » ■ i wn ii-^^n 

Shorthand — 

»<M— » — i H fr ill i l|i M— 1|— 1|— wtti u i II- 

Tuition — 

L. D. S. 

Business College 

Enter Any Monday 


One of our students won first 
prize at the International 
Gregg Contest. 

$15.00 each month 
$40.00 three months 
$75.00 six months 

*<;n«» (**»*»<■» ii-* 



The Improvement Era for September, 1931 


is the time to 

have your 




A Call To 
WAS. 8572 

Will bring our expert 

Citizens Goal Co. 

Agents for the Famous 


and assure successful 
growth next Spring 

A postcard with your name and ad- 
dress will bring FREE our new 

Fall Bulb and Nursery 
Guide Book 

It tells How, What and When 
Send for it Today 


42 W. 1st So. St. 

Salt Lake City 

Man Gains Dominion 
Over the Earth 

[Continued from page 647] 

water. This is kept in ponds, 
where carp and rainbow trout are 
grown. One hundred twenty tons 
of this variety of fish are raised 
and marketed every year. 

These ponds cover an area of 
nearly 2,900,000 square yards or 
600 acres. The waters are so rich 
in fertility that plant life grows 
abundantly. Bacteria, Protozoa, 
Infusoria, Algae and many other 
kinds of animal and plant life 
grow. These use up all the oxy- 
gen in the water, and the fish die. 
To take care of this, 6000 mature 
ducks are kept on these ponds. 
They feed upon both the plant 
and the animal life. Thousands 
of eggs are laid during the year 
and these eggs are sold to the peo- 
ple of the city. Each spring many 
of these eggs are hatched out. 
Twenty-two thousand baby duck- 
lings are sold when one day to 
eight days old. 

The sediment left, after the de- 
composing process has continued 
for some time, is dried and sold 
to the farmers of Germany as com- 
mercial fertilizer. Thus the sew- 
age which is an aggravating prob- 
lem for many large cities in Amer- 
ica and elsewhere has been turned 
into a profitable business enter- 

Ducks, ducklings, eggs, carp, 
rainbow trout, commercial fertiliz- 
er, illuminating and cooking gas 
all used by man are made from 
the material which was formerly 
a great nuisance. 

Can we contemplate this un- 
dertaking without a feeling of 
wonder at what man can do under 
proper guidance. 

ARE we not living in an age 
** when this earth is expected to 
be celestialized and made a fit 
abode for perfect spirits. How will 
this thing be done? Is this under- 
taking not worthy of the thought 
— as is also the efforts of the many 
scientists to improve the world in 
the realm of physics, chemistry 
bacteriology, etc. — that the earth 
is gradually being renewed by the 
work of these great men in their 

Is not the man who works over 
the microscope and with the chem- 
ical test tube, being inspired to 
make his great contributions to the 
perfecting of the earth? 

Any man who will use his 
abilities to improve his environ- 
ment whether in the realm of the 
scientific, ethical or spiritual is in- 
deed a servant of God acting un- 
der the inspiration of the Father. 
As he works he will become more 
like his great Father, for it is part 
of our faith, say Joseph Smith 
and Brigham Young, that one can- 
not study nature without master- 
ing a knowledge of the laws of 
God, anjd one cannot expose him- 
self unstintingly to those laws 
without becoming like the manipu- 
lator of them. 

The Messenger 

TTHE MESSENGER is the title of 
•*• a splendid little periodical issued 
monthly by the presidency of the 
San Francisco stake. The following 
is taken from their last issue: 

Pres. Heber J. Grant in a letter, dated 
June 5, 1931, commends Isaac B. Ball, 
stake high councilor, for his recent con- 
tributions to the Era: 

"I have read with the keenest interest 
your two articles in the Improvement Era, 
entitled, 'Additional Internal Evidence of 
:he Authenticity of the Book of Mormon.' 
I think that you have rendered a distinct 

service to the Church in writing these 
articles. I rejoiced as I read them to think 
that one of our Latter-day Saints was 
capable and had the knowledge to write an 
article such as you have done. 

"Again I desire to thank you sincerely 
for the articles you wrote for the Im- 
provement Era. I think they are worth 
their weight in gold to our young people 
who will read them carefully and will 
allow the significance of what you have 
written to sink into their hearts." 

Get your Era and read again Elder 
Ball's articles that have called forth such 
splendid words from the President of the 

The Improvement Era for September, 1931 


Glancing Through. 

[Continued from page 675] 

looks both ways, and avoids accidents. 
When anything pleasant happens, he 
is agreeably surprised and delighted, 
but never expects it to happen again. 
When it does, he is again surprised 
and delighted- — and surprise is a thing 
impossible if everything good is ex- 
pected. The pessimist expects little or 
nothing from friends, and thus never 
loses faith in them, but is always 
touched by any little evidence of their 
loyalty and esteem. 

By profession, the author is a play- 
wright. Nine-tenths of the time he 
is convinced that he will never write 
anything worthwhile — a view shared 
by many of the few who read his 
writing— and so he is amazed and over- 
joyed if anything he does is in the 
least degree good. He expects all 
plays to be rejected by all managers, 
but if a manager displays any interest 
at all it is a pleasant shock. If the 
play is accepted and a check for ad- 
vance royalties appears, he has no idea 
that it will ever get into rehearsal, 
let alone production, and if it does, 
joy unbounded is his. The certainty 
that nobody will like it serves to re- 
strain any exuberance likely to be 
quelled by critics and reviewers. 

Not the least of the optimists' woes 
is his almost hysterical determination 
to be cheerful at all costs. If he be- 
gins to feel low, he rushes off to find 
something to cheer him up, and thus 
is constantly seeking stimulation, en- 
couragement, illusion. The pessimist 
makes no such search, and accepts 
anything of a pleasant nature gladly if 
it comes. 

It is the optimist who is stirred by 
propaganda, ads, ballyhoo. He be- 
lieves he can get personality by cor- 
respondence, that just inside the tent- 
flap are the world's greatest wonders. 
No amount of disillusion cures him. 
The day after a disappointment, he is 
all ready to begin again. 

The pessimist avoids all that futile 
and wasteful expenditure of time, en- 
ergy and money. He is sales-resist- 
ance incarnate. The joy he finds in 
doing nothing and not feeling guilty 
about it! the things he refrains from 
buying; the books he avoids reading; 
The plays he stays away from! The 
dull parties he does not attend! 

One more point. The optimist 
thinks he can go on forever, as good 
as new. Snap out of it! Keep going! 
Don't give in! The pessimist, finding 
himself fretful and tired, takes it as 
a serious warning, and goes somewhere 
for a rest — to a place he can sit quiet- 
ly down and watch the sunlight fall 
in golden beauty on things. 

It is the optimist who suffers from 
indigestion — psychic indigestion — and 
it is no wonder, poor fellow. The 
pessimist can rest his eyes on holes 
once in awhile, but the optimist's 
reputation demands that he keep his 
eyes forever fastened to the doughnut! 

\A AN-POWER is also econo- 
- A mized by co-operation, or by 

working together harmoniously. 
Every time two or more persons 
work at cross purposes, each one 
trying to interfere with the others. 
there is a waste of man-power. To 
eliminate that form of waste is one 
of the major purposes of states 
manship. It may have been the 
sheer necessity of the situation 
which forced the early Mormons 
to co-operate or starve. It may 
have been the bond of common re- 
ligion, it may have been superior 
intelligence and insight. Whatever 
the source, the result was good. 
— Dr. Thos. Nixon Carver. 







THE po pular STATION 


The Improvement Era for September, 1931 



You'll surely want the Sego 
Loose-leaf Cook Book. More 
than 300 tested recipes . . . 
handsomely illustrated . . . 
a real inspiration and guide 
to better meals ! Just write 
for a free copy. Sego Milk 
Products Co., Salt Lake City, 


Helpful chats by Barbara 
Badger, director of the Home 

Service Department . 

. . and popular music. 

Daily except Sunday, 

10 to 10:15 

over KDYL. 

brings you the finest 
of Nature's Foods 

Every ingredient used in Royal 
Table Queen Bread is a selected 
product of nature. The hearts 
of choice, sun-ripened wheat 
kernels, specially milled for us 
— good, rich, pure milk in an 
extra measure — sugar and salt of 
the finest grade! 

It is good for you ! 

20 ounces 10 cents 

Made by 


Salt Lake and Ogden 

Foods for Healtk 

The Joy of Eating, 

[Continued from page 677] 

Baked Pears 

Fresh pears are delicious baked. Do 
not peel but remove core and fill 
center with brown sugar and place 
pears in buttered baking dish. 

Dissolve 1 tablespoon of cornstarch and 
1 tablespoon of white sugar in 1 cup 
of water, add a few drops of vanilla and 
a pinch of salt; pour over pears, cover 
and bake in moderate oven 40 minutes. 

Pears may also be peeled, cut in half 
and baked with all white sugar and a 
little lemon juice. They are delicious served 
with cream or as a relish with meat. 

Baked Peaches No. I 
Carefully wipe f/uzz from 6 large 
ripe peaches and place in buttered baking 
dish. Dissolve 2 tablespoons sugar and 
1 tablespoon cornstarch in 1% cups of 
water, add 1 teaspoon lemon juice and 
pinch of salt — cover and bake 25 min- 

Baked Peaches No. II 

Take 6 large firm peaches, peel, and 
cut in halves, removing stone, and place 
in shallow baking tin. Fill each peach 
cavity with 1 teaspoon sugar, %. teaspoon 
of butter, and a slight grating of nut- 
meg. Pour into the baking tin 1 table- 
spoon of water and 2 tablespoons of 
orange juice. Bake in moderate oven twen- 
ty minutes. They may be served hot 
or cold, with or without cream. 

Peach Marmalade 

6 pounds of peaches 

6 pounds of sugar 

4 oranges 

Peel peaches, remove stones, slice and 
weigh. Peel 2 oranges and cut into 
small bits. Put the other two oranges 
through meat grinder, skins and all. Pour 
the sugar over the fruit and let stand 
several hours. Place over slow fire until 
sugar is melted then cook slowly 1 hour. 
Blanched almonds make a nice addition. 


Plums are one of the few fruits that 
retain all of their fragrance and flavor 
when canned — one reason being that 
skins, stones and all are usually cooked 
together. Plums make delicious jams and 
jellies. Pecan nuts added to blue plum 
jam give a delicious flavor. 


WE all know that "an apple a day 
keeps the doctor away." There 
are so many ways to prepare them, we 
ought to be able to eat an apple daily 
without tiring of them. 

Apples may be baked plain, or with 
many and various flavorings. After 
they are cored and placed in a but- 
tered baking dish, fill the centers with 
raisins and nuts and pour over them 
a syrup, made by boiling brown sugar 
and water together — or fill the centers 

with sugar, and a dot of butter, 
sprinkle with nutmeg and cinnamon, 
add a half cup of water and pinch of 
salt to baking pan, and bake in mod- 
erate oven, 

Core apples and peel them about a 
third of the way down from the stem. 
Make a syrup (not too sweet) of sugar 
and water and pour over apples, cover 
and bake until tender- — remove from oven, 
sprinkle well with sugar and place under 
blaze to glaze. When cold serve with tea- 
spoon of jelly in center and puff of 
whipped cream on top. 

Apple Sauce 

It should be remembered that apple 
sauce made now, canned and stored 
away will taste much better in the 
late winter than sauce made from 
fresh apples that have been kept in 

Dried Fruit 

An eastern multi-millionaire for 
many years employed a Utah woman 
to prepare and ship to him each sea- 
son a large amount of dried peaches — 
because nowhere could he find peaches 
that equaled in flavor the ones he 
once ate while traveling through 
northern Utah. Most people will 
agree that no food in the world is 
more delicious than dried apples served 
with cream and fresh ginger bread. 
Drying fruit is not a difficult task — 
the main thing is to protect it from 
flies and dust. A screened-in porch 
is a good place, especially if it faces 
south. Small tables can be put in 
the sun during the day and brought 
indoors at night, or drying racks 
can be arranged at a small expense. 
The orchards are laden with fruit and 
a little extra effort now will help 
solve the food problems when winter 

French Apple Pie 

A request has come in for French 
Apple Pie with Graham Cracker Crust 
— here it is. 


2 cups of graham cracker crumbs 

V2 cup of butter — melted 

T /4 cup of sugar 

2 egg whites 

Roll the cracker crumbs as finely as 
possible, and mix with the butter and 
the sugar — then fold in the beaten egg 
whites. Place this mixture in the pie 
tin, and with the fingers pat it firmly into 
place on the bottom and along the sides 
of the tin. Brush lightly with egg white 
before adding apple sauce. This will 
prevent soaking. 

The Improvement Era for September, 1931 


The Apple Filling 

3 cups of unsweetened apple sauce 

% cup of sugar 

1 teaspoon cinnamon 

3 egg whites 

Pinch of salt 

Mix the applesauce, sugar and season- 
ing together, and just before placing in 
pie cr.ust fold in the well beaten egg 
whites. Sprinkle the top with a mixture 
of grape nuts and brown sugar. Bake 
in hot oven for 5 minutes, then lower 
^heat and continue baking until done, about 
30 minutes. 

Watermelon Rind Preserves 
Choose a melon that is ripe and sweet 
and has a deep rind. Remove all red and 
the outer green skin and cut into strips 
from 1% to two inches long. 

To 1 gallon of rind use 4 level teaspoons 

-of salt and enough water to cover. Boil 

until tender enough to pierce with a 

.silver fork. Drain, dry thoroughly with 

a cloth and place in an earthen jar. 

Boil together 1 quart of white wine 
vinegar and 2 quarts of sugar — add 1 
stick of cinnamon and 1 teaspoon of 
cloves and pour over the rind. Repeat 
this each morning for several days, or 
until the rind is transparent. The cloves 
should be strained out about the third 
morning as they tend to darken the rind. 

The Workmanship 
of Your Hands 

By Glenn J. Beeley 

QUESTION: Have you a good 
recipe for Gesso? 
ANSWER: I gill can glue, \y 2 
cups whiting, 3 teaspoons linseed oil, 
3 teaspoons varnish. Place 1% cups 
whiting in the mixing bowl and then 
pour in slowly the glue, linseed oil 
and jrarnish. Mix slowly with a 
large 'spoon until the mixture is 
smooth. The more stirring the bet- 
ter. If it seems oily on the surface, 
add one more teaspoon of glue, so 
that the mixture is sticky, and clings 
readily to the sides of the mixing 
bowl. The gesso when properly mix- 
ed, should be of a consistency which 
will pile up and remain piled in a 
scrolled effect. If it is too liquid a 
form, add whiting until the proper 
consistency is secured. If the mix- 
ture is too thick, it can be thinned 
with a teaspoon of water. 

When not in use, keep gesso in an 
air-tight jar. 

QUESTION: Please give me a list 
of oil paints good for general use. 
ANSWER: Chrome green (medi- 
um) , chrome yellow, Harrison yel- 
low, Van Dyke brown, mauve, Prus- 
sian blue. Flake white, burnt sienna. 
QUESTION: Is there anything to 
put into stencil paint which will make 
it more fast? 

ANSWER: Add a few drops of 
"Permanent Mixture" to your paint 
before using. It may be purchased at 
any paint store, or they will be able 
to order it for you. 


Fleischmann's yeast is a simple, nat- 
ural food, recommended by world 
famous doctors. Eat three cakes a 
day, and keep yourself in top-notch 



At Grocers, Soda Fountains and Restaurants 

HI — -II If 

I Broadway Felt Co. 


106 West Broadway 

Was. 2077 = 

I Makers of Everything in 
I Felt 




Mail Orders Given Prompt Attention 

Ask For Our Prices I 


1 II H II II 11 — 11 ll^_l.— _|| „__„__, | J 


and Opera 
Bank, Office, Church and Store 

Salt Lake Cabinet & 
Fixture Company 

32 Richards Street 
Write us for prices 

The Portals of Your 
Church University 


When School Opens, 
September 25 

[f you have not received the catalog, write today to 

The President 

Brigham Young University 

Provo, Utah 


The Improvement Era for September, 1931 

(d , : T3 

More for Your 
Milk Money 

With every bottle of Clover Leaf- 
Harris Milk you get a reservoir of 
i ream that will whip! Only the 
exclusive Clover Leaf-Harris cream- 
top bottle gives you this extra value. 

For prompt, courteous daily service, 

Just call Wasatch 2177 

Clover Leaf -Harris 

ea f~Hc 


Modern diet hangs too many anchors on health. 
You can feel the drag. You live, but the thrill 
is lacking. 

Vibrant health, radiant energy depend upon 
internal behavior. And nothing maintains this 
inner cleanliness so perfectly as proper diet 
To start afresh, to work back to health, use 
Lacto-Dextrin. It maintains inner cleanliness 
by driving out the putrefactive germs. 

Lacto-Dextrin and other Battle Creek Sani- 
tarium Health Foods can be obtained at the 

Z. C. M. L 


At Battle Creek we maintain a staff of dieti- 
tians to advise you on any diet problem. Check 
your particular diet problem on the coupon 
below and mail to Ida Jean Kain, our chief 
dietitian. She will send you suggestions for 
your individual diet, without charge. Natur- 
ally, no diagnosis of any disease will be 
attempted. Consult your physician for that. 
"Healthful Living," a most helpful book writ- 
ten by a leading nutrition expert will also be 
sent free. This offer to assist you is bona fide 
and without obligation. The advice may be 
followed with utmost confidence whether you 
use the foods in this System or not. 



Ida Jean Kain Z. C. M. I.-l 


Battle Creek, Mich. 

I want to avail myself of your Free Diet 
Service. My diet problem is checked below. 
Also send copy of "Healthful Living." 
DOverweight DUnderweight GConstipation 
□Sour Stomach (Check your diet problem) 





C/I Daughter of Martha 

[Continued from page 665] 

came closer, Gloria heard a sickly, 
weak cry from the baby. The 
squaw tried the door, rattled the 
latch. The young Indian called 
loudly and pounded upon the 
door. Gloria stood petrified, 
knowing that a telltale streak of 
smoke from the chimney had 
showed the house was not deserted. 
The young Indian pointed to it 
and resumed his poundings. Fi- 
nally the squaw called "Poor babe 
— seek." An additional wail 
proved her assertion and Gloria 
mastered her fear. Here was not 
violence but distress. The little 
black-haired baby writhed with 
fever. Gloria learned they had 
fed him pine nuts and squirrel 
meat — fare for the gods! 

Sweet oil, followed 

by baths of vinegar water soon 
brought relief, and the amazed 
parents stood by, while the white 
girl administered her magic. Late 
in the afternoon the baby slept 
tranquilly. Taking the bottle of 
oil as a future precaution, and 
all the bread in the house, the 
Indians departed. The whole 
train had stoically waited their re- 
turn. As they left, the squaw pet- 
ted Gloria's riotous curls and mut- 
tered: "Purty — heap purty!" 

The spinning was not finished, 
the cow had to be milked by can- 
dle light, but Gloria's act of mercy 
proved to be bread upon the waters 
of life. 

The next day Margaret Kirk- 
man mixed all their remaining 
flour into bread, scraping the tin 
box for the last precious spoonful. 
Still the boys neither wrote nor 
returned. "No news is good news," 
sang Gloria, vainly striving to 
chase the look of white despair 
from her mother's face. What 
difference did it make, whether you 
were killed with a poisoned os- 
satgai or a poisoned arrow? 


ILORIA developed a 
sudden, unexplainable antipathy 
for bread and milk and butter. 
She craved greens; dandelions, pig 
weed and even water cress, grown 
rank and stringy. Anything that 
could be flavored with candle 

grease was just to her taste. But 
she went outside while her mother 
ate the last slice of bread and whis- 
pered to the stars: "Diamonds by 
the chicken coop where I was 
born!" Later after prayers she 
muttered: "We believe in wor- 
shipping Almighty God accord- 
ing — " "Maud Muller on a sum- 
mer's day — " Fatigue and moun- 
tain water and water cress brought 
blessed sleep. 

Morning brought her brothers 
who were unharmed and who had 
traveled all night. The whites, 
had conquered the Indians, and 
the boys were laden with gifts, 
from the grateful settlers. The- 
Indians were subdued. The whites 
had returned to their homes. Mar- 
garet Kirkman made biscuits, 
bread and cake with white flour. 
Gloria produced many pairs of 
socks. The sons laughed at the 
crooked furrows their women 
folks had plowed, and at the scant 
supply of fuel. But their smiles, 
held back tears, and presents fur- 
nished diversion from near emo- 
tion. There were shoes and two- 
Dolly Varden hats, a pair of beau- 
tiful all woolen blankets. But 
they were as nothing compared to 
a book — a fifth reader which 
Gloria avidly consumed ere she 
slept. And when the cake was 
cold _ and the biscuits browned, 
Gloria's appetite for flour returned, 
she lost that craving for greens. 

"Captain Burton used your 
copy book for a log, Mother," 
explained Stephen, "so we couldn't 
write. 'Twas the only paper in 
all our camp. It will go to the 

"O, Gloria," Henry was bub- 
bling with eagerness, "we saw 
your friend Jonas Whitman. That 
man you saved on the plains." 
He grinned joyously at the sud- 
den flame which covered Gloria's, 
face. "We stopped at his house. 
He's a prosperous man. He's got 
a farm and a store and a saw mill 
and two little children and a sickly 
wife. His house has a place what 
you grow flowers in. A conserva- 
tory, they call it. There's a big 
piano and wax flowers, and a lily 
pond in his lawn and a room with 
nothing in it but books. He sent 

The Improvement Era for September, 1931 


you that reader we brought." 
Thanks to this new gift, "Horatio 
at the Bridge" was soon added to 
Gloria's store of memorized poems. 

1 HE Kirkman boys 
were impressed with their father's 
tales of diamonds. A twenty-two 
carat diamond where Gloria was 
born! Diamonds on the Orange 
River — diamonds at the junction 
of the Vaal and Orange, diamonds 
almost for the asking, if you were 

"Well," argued Thomas lacon- 
ically, "diamonds ten thousand 
miles away aren't worth any more 
to us than twinkling stars. The 
railroad's coming soon — coming 
fast. Coming from 'Frisco with 
Governor Stanford behind it. 
Coming from Omaha. They're 
making history, and we can help 
make it too." 

"President Young has a contract 
for ninety miles of grading. We 
have horses now. We will make 
better wages than diamond dig- 
gers," added George, who was 
usually noncommittal. His pre- 
diction was soon fulfilled. "On 
to Echo" became a popular slogan. 
Construction crews, Mongolian 
laborers, teamsters, scrapers, en- 
gineers and surveyors swarmed like 
ants about the two rival grades. 
Margaret Kirkman secured employ- 
ment cooking for one crew, with 
Gloria as her helper. Gloria had 
never dreamed of such lavish sup- 
plies. All they needed to cook 
was theirs. Dried fruits, white 
flour, cured and fresh meats, butter 
in great wooden tubs. Margaret 
Kirkman was a good cook and 
very shortly men vied for places 
at her table. Gloria washed dishes, 
peeled potatoes, set tables, waited 
on the rough, voracious men. She, 
too, was helping to make history. 
She was turning her small cog in 
the wheel of the great Iron Horse. 
Every tie, every rail, every spike 
brought the vision closer. Rails 
would soon span the whole con- 
tinent, linking the East and the 
West. Her dream of travel would 
be nearer. She smiled now to 
notice how the stage drivers be- 
came less arrogant. Some of them 
were even seeking employment on 
the railroad. The yellow dusters 
and the lemon colored gloves 
would pass into history along 
with the- beautiful red and green 
stages. Postage would be cheaper. 

Perhaps the comfort of the rail- 
road would spur her father's com- 
ing. Maybe he would bring dia- 
monds. He had said "await my 


HE first of May in 
sixty-nine found the two rival 
companies at fever heat. Parallel 
grades were being laid. The 
Union Pacific forged down Weber 
Canyon, while the Central Pacific 
rounded the Lake. A long stretch 
of grade was now useless. Ten 
miles of track were laid in one 

day. Twenty-five thousand men, 
ten thousand horses! They 
swarmed about like hills of dis- 
turbed ants. Abuttments; blast- 
ing; scraping; gravel; ties; rails. 
Swearing men. Water boys. Wide- 
eyed Chinese rushing to cook for 
them all. Feverish haste, over- 
time. "Like two giants, hastening 
to meet on the shores of the Great 
Dead Sea." 

Knowing Gloria's eagerness to 
go, and as an appreciation of Mrs. 
Kirkman's many kindnesses, a con- 
struction engineer took them to 

M* L A. Reading Course 


for 1931-1932 


Life Story of Brig-ham Young (Susa Young Gates and Leah D. Widtsoe) $2.50 

Medical Aspects of the Latter-day Saints Word of Wisdom (Dr. L. W. Oaks) 1.00 

People and Music (T. C. McGehee) 1.40 

With Malice Towards None (H. W. Morrow) 75 

Singing in the Rain (A. S. Monroe) 2.00 

Larry — Thoughts of Youth (Foster) 1.25 

Modern Pioneers (Cohen and Scarlet) 80 

Full set of Seven Books, delivered anywhere if remittance in full accompanies 

order $9.00 

If sent C. O. D.-Parcel Post 9.50 

If charged to your Ward. (See Note below) 9.70 

These books cannot be sent out and charged to individuals. Books may be charged 
to your Ward for not to exceed sixty days if the order is signed by the Bishop. 


44 East on South Temple 

P. O. Box 1793 

Salt Lake City, Utah 

Bath Furnishings 
Tell the Character 
of the WholeHome 

No room is more expressive than the bath. When 
you build for yourself, or remodel your present 
home, you will wish a bath that is beautiful and 

KOHLER OF KOHLER plumbing fixtures merge and agree with the decorative 
scheme of the room, and lend an atmosphere of dignity and taste to the whole home. 

The KOHLER trade mark, inconspicuously fused into the surface of every genuine 
KOHLER OF KOHLER fixture, is your assurance of quality and enduring beauty. 
Write for our free booklet on how to plan beautiful and dutiful bathrooms and 



316 West 2nd South St. Salt Lake City 

"The difference between an old house and a new one is the plumbing" 


The Improvement Era for September, 1931 

The Art 

of all Arts 





Distinctively Done 










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Salt Lake City 




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Promontory on that eventful May 

Although she later felt the whirl 
of mighty airplanes, Gloria never 
experienced another such thrill as 
that ride to Promontory on a 
glorious May morning. The 
swaying, creaking flatcar was like 
the wings of Perseus. She did not 
smell the smoke, nor se? the cinders 
which floated backward. The 
Fort Douglas band played nation- 
al airs. Governor Stanford was 
there, wearing a velvet coat. Ladies 
in wonderful, sweeping silk dress- 
es, carrying fringed parasols; hilar- 
ity, speeches, whistles and cheers. 

Chinamen laid the last two rails 
for the Central Pacific. 

Europeans laid the last two 
rails for the Union Pacific. 

"O, he is in danger now," re- 
plied Gloria quickly. "The Kafirs; 
kill white men whenever they 

"Would that my wife could 
have health like yours!" Jonas 
Whitman looked long at the ra- 
diant and youthful beauty of 
Gloria Kirkman. "My wife gets 
weaker each day. Our tiny baby 
girl is not strong either. Every 
night I pray the Lord to spare 
the mother to rear the child." 



SPIKE of gold. 
Twenty-three double eagles had 
gone into it! Almost as much as 
the fortune they thought they had 
lost on the plains. A silver spike 
from Nevada, a silver and gold 
one from Arizona. The last tie 
was polished laurel wood from 
California. Governor Stanford 
removed his velvet coat and drove 
that last spike. The crowd cheered; 
telegraph instruments clicked the 
news to the world; the two en- 
gines pushed together; the two en- 
gineers broke champagne bottles 
over the other's headlight. A 
thousand miles from Missouri; 
seven hundred from 'Frisco. A 
little Gloria Kirkman, with her red 
hair and pug nose was permitted 
to witness this! 

When the speeches were over 
and the band had gone, Gloria 
felt a touch on her arm. There 
behind her stood Jonas Whitman 
— a little older, a little plumper, 
but the same courtesy in his voice, 
the same dreamy, visionary expres- 
sion in his eyes. 

"Crown of Glory," he smiled, 
"how you have grown. You are 
a blossom now> — no longer a bud. 
Are you going to marry one of 
these many surveyors or en- 

Gloria blushed, but answered 
modestly, "I await my father's 

"Ah, he may now come in peace 
and luxury. There will be no 
horses for the Indians to steal, 
and he will not need to lie in 
agony until a little girl finds him." 

fLORIA felt a surg- 
ing wave of sympathy for this 
sick woman, who could not even 
care for her baby. 

"If you lived closer to us, I 
could help," she answered. But 
Jonas Whitman shook his head 

"Only God can help," he an- 
swered. "She is slipping away. 
I have prospered in worldly goods, 
but I am powerless to save her. 
But I must not spoil your won- 
derful day with my troubles. His- 
tory and beauty have combined to 
make this day a memorable one." 
He bowed gallantly, and soon he 
had again mingled in a group of 
men. Gloria noticed that they 
listened attentively whenever he 
spoke. 'Undoubtedly he was a 
leader. "Poor man!" she thought. 
"I guess he never stirred dandelion 
greens with a tallow candle. But 
soon he will have no wife, nor 
anyone to care for his little girl." 

1 HE next spring 
Gloria's brothers took her to con- 
ference. Margaret Kirkman felt 
her frail strength unequal to the 
long ride. She also was failing, 
so she voluntarily remained at 
home with a neighbor boy to milk. 
The wheat stood four inches 
high when they left. Looking 
back at the little valley as they 
rounded a curve, Gloria noticed 
how like a beautiful green carpet 
the fields looked, smooth and 
slightly waving. A solid mass of 
green. When they returned four 
days later she could hardly believe 
her eyes. She rubbed them and 
looked again. The wheat fields 
were gone! Not beaten down by 
a violent rain; not scorched from 
a mountain wind; but every blade 
and shoot of green was as though 
it had never been. A scourge of 
grasshoppers had swept over the 

The Improvement Era for September, 1931 


valley. They had clouded the 
sun. They had settled on each 
field, until no food remained, then 
rose, and passed on to another. 
The mill race was filled with their 
bodies. Margaret Kirkman had 
caught four sacks of them in the 
irrigation flume. Children, with 
rags tied to sticks, shooed them 
away from the potato plants. On- 
ly the pig weeds remained un- 
scathed. No dandelions — no wa- 
ter cress; only pig weeds for hu- 
mans and bunch grass for animals. 
A horde had settled on the railroad 
track and had stopped a train. 

"It can't be," cried Gloria, 
"Our beautiful wheat." 

'Tis lucky we have horses," 
Stephen was always practical. "We 
can go south and burn charcoal, 
and send food home." 

Gloria thought of the plenteous 
table she had set before the rail- 
road workers. Of the wife of 
Jonas Whitman, who no doubt, 
was too ill to eat the good things 
he provided; she thought of the 
diamonds discovered at her birth- 

"God's purpose is not yet re- 
vealed, but we will survive our 
affliction," Margaret Kirkman's 
voice held a quality more than 
earthly. As she spoke she did not 
glance at the diminishing sack of 

1 HE following winter 
George went out with a shovel 
and cleaning some bare ground, 
dug up a panful of soil. This he 
thawed out slowly, behind the 
stove. Then he called the family 
together — unmistakable signs of 
grasshopper larvae were all 
through the soil. 

"I guess," he said in his slow 
methodical manner, "we boys had 
better go to burn charcoal again." 

The siege lasted four years. 
Gloria was fortunate to have shoes 
for Sundays and holidays. There 
were no berries or wild currants. 
No strawberries in the rank mea- 
dows. No blade of wheat was 
permitted to head or ripen. Even 
the sunflowers were eaten from the 
roof of their house; the few pre- 
cious potatoes they were able to 
shield had to be hoarded for yeast. 
Fortunately, there was game and 
her brothers were able to keep the 
table fairly well supplied with 
meats and fish. Whenever Gloria 

felt rebellion surge, a glance at her 
mother's peaceful countenance 
filled her with shame. She longed 
for the bully beef which they had 
all loathed when on board ship. 
Even dried and pressed vegetables 
would have been as nectar com- 
pared to the unchanging menu of 
pig weeds and bread, made from 
flour which her brothers hauled 
two hundred miles. 

FROM one of their 
trips her brothers brought the 
news of the death of Jonas Whit- 
man's wife. The little baby girl 
was so weak she could not walk 
until she was three. 

"Well, family," Stephen as- 
sumed the role of parent in the 
absence of the father, "we are hav- 
ing a hard time. I don't like our 
fare, and Mother weakens under 
it, I know. But in these past ten 
years history has been made. These 
United States have abolished slav- 
ery. They have passed a home- 
stead law which makes it possible 
for the poor man to acquire land. 
They have laid the Atlantic Cable, 
so messages can go over the water. 
And now the railroad has come. 
It has been a marvelous ten years." 

Two years later when the fields 
were again full of promise, and 
the Kirkman boys felt they could 
afford to stay at home to cultivate 
their farms, Jonas Whitman came 
seeking the "Crown of Glory." 

Margaret kirk- 
man was failing rapidly. She 
wanted Gloria safely and wisely 
married while she was still with 
her. The two Whitman children 
needed a mother's care. The tiny 
Anna, suffering from a physical 
weakness which threatened to be 
mental, needed hourly care from 
loving hands. Jonas Whitman had 
more than a dirt roof to his home 
and more than rough boards on his 
floors. He had a glass-roofed room 
where he experimented with moss 
roses, a library with books and 
books and more books. And his 
hair wss no longer a rich brown, 
but thinning at the temples. His 
eyes held the dreamy, far-away 
expression which belongs to men 
of vision, but his coat lacked a 

"I need you, Crown of Glory," 
he pleaded. More than his words, 
Gloria noticed his collar had been 

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The Improvement Era for September, 1931 



The Joseph Wm. Taylor 

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The high class efficient service will 

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Index to Advertisers 

Battle Creek Food Co. (Z. C. M. I.) 692 
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Bennett Glass 8 Paint Co 686 

Brigham Young University 691 

Broadway Felt Company 691 

Citizen's Coal Company 688 

Clover Leaf-Harris Dairy 692 

Deseret Book Company 693 

Deseret News Press 694 

Fleischmann's Yeast 691 

First Security Corp Inside Back Cover 

Grant, Heber J. £> Company 68 6 

Intermountain Broadcasting Corp. 

(K D Y L) 689 

L. D. S. Business College 687 

McCune School of Music and Art 685 

Mountain States Supply Co 693 

North American Institute 695 

Porter-Walton Company 688 

Quish School of Beauty Culture 694 

Radio Service Corp. of Utah (K S L) 

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Royal Baking Company 690 

Salt Lake Cabinet 8 Fixture Co 691 

Sego Milk Company 690 

Stringham, Benjamin B 695 

Taylor, Joseph Wm., Inc , 696 

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scorched in the ironing. Here she 
could serve and render a real ser- 
vice to humanity. She would rear 
his children kindly ■ — ■ she would 
mother the weak Anna. So, after 
a week of whirlwind .courtship 
and hasty preparations, Gloria 
Kirkman became Gloria Whitman. 
A gray flowered silk with a train, 
kid gloves that were more beauti- 
ful than the stage driver's because 
they were a delicate gray, a hat 
with straw flowers to set upon 
the riotous, red curls! She would 
no longer be like Maud Muller 
who raked the hay. But with her 
change of fortunes she would: 

"Feed the hungry and clothe the poor 
And all should bless me who left my 

1 HERE need be no 
further scrapings of the flour can; 
no boiling of tagalder bark for 

dye, no need to use ravelings for 

The day of her marriage anoth- 
er infrequent letter came from 
John Kirkman in far away Africa: 

"A diamond weighing 83 carats has 
been found on the Orange River. It is 
called "The Star of South Africa." It 
sold for 25,000 pounds. They are be- 
ginning to dig into the earth. A certain 
blue soil contains diamonds, as well as 
river beds. I am joining a party going 
inland, in Boer trekking wagons. Do 
not expect me yet. When I come, I will 
be rich. I will no longer send money, 
just to be lost. I will bring a large dia- 
mond for my little Gloria. 

"John Kirkman." 

"You are no longer his little 
Gloria, you are mine!" whispered 
Jonas Whitman. "Mine to keep, 
to love, to cherish. Mine, to 
change my desolate house into a 

(To be continued) 



[Continued from page 667] 

rilla received a telegram. With 
nervous fingers she tore it open. 

"Mother," it read. "I am very 
sick. Could you come. My baby 
is here." 

A hard straight line settled upon 
Merrilla's lips. "A Mormon," she 
snorted. "I'd die first! I would 
rather die." A flush mounted and 
suffused her face. "A Mormon!" 

She paced back and forth fret- 
fully. A strange confusion of 
emotions were warring in her 
breast. "Oh, God," she prayed, 
"What can I do?" 

She made an effort to read, but 
tossed the book aside. 

Outside a soft rain was falling. 
It was cold. A shiver shook her 
body. Should she go? Could she 
stoop so low as to — ? A thou- 
sand pictures began unreeling 
themselves before ber like a cinema. 
She pressed her hands to her head. 
A baby — her own darling baby's 
baby ... a Mormon. Her finger 
nails bit deep into the palms of her 
hands. . . . Sick — with a baby. 


>ACK and forth she 
paced like an animal in a cage. It 
seemed like many hours. She 
strode to the radio, stubbornly de- 
termined to push all thought from 

her mind. A flip of a switch; 
a turn of the dial, and — she 
growled as a man's voice came 
through the loud speaker. Did 
they have to give Peace talks on 
a day like this? She whirled the 
dial to a National Broadcast. The 
confusion of sounds scarcely made 
any impression upon her distracted 
senses. It was a choir singing. 
She leaned back in the deep chair 
and closed her eyes. Like an 
electric shock every fiber in her 
body came to life; every sense 
snapped to alert attention to the 
music that was coming through. 
It was Largo. Despite the dis- 
tortion peculiar to the radio she 
caught a distinctly new spirit in 
its tones. ,As the last vibrations 
of that great masterpiece died away 
she threw her head into her hands 
and wept. 

"This is being broadcast from 
the Mormon Tabernacle at Salt 
Lake City," came the voice of the 

Merrilla stood shakily upon her 
feet. For the first time in many 
months she was calm and at peace. 

"Jane," she said to the girl who 
answered her summons, "pack my 
things. I am going on a trip. 
Please hurry, for I only have an 
hour to reach my train." 

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